• The Journey from Intergroup Emnity to Peaceful Conflict Handling. Peacebuilding Experiences of local NGOs in the former Yugoslavia: Multiple Approaches for Undermining Intergroup Animosities and Dealing With Differences.

      Not named; Schaefer, Christoph Daniel (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2013-03-26)
      Classical approaches to conflict resolution assume that inducing conflict parties to analyse conflict constellations precipitates that the disputants recognise mutually shared needs or interests. Partially in critical reaction towards this assumption, a more recently emerging approach envisages setting up a communicative framework within which the conflict parties are supposed to harmonise their conceptualisations of the conflict. This dissertation, in contrast, argues that work within the frameworks of these classes of approaches is impolitic as long as war-related hostilities stay intact, since conflict parties which see the existence of the adversary as the core of the problem are unlikely to engage in a process of open communication or open analysis, so that trustbuilding is a sine qua non. Practice experiences of local NGOs in the former Yugoslavia suggest that the following activities can be conducive to trustbuilding: 1) supporting exchanges on personalising information, so that the internal heterogeneity of the opponent¿s group is rendered visible; 2) bringing intergroup iii commonalities to the foreground, either through cooperation on shared aspirations, or by unearthing interpersonal overlaps e.g. common feelings, values, and war-related experiences; 3) undermining the imagination of the own side¿s moral superiority by fostering the recognition of crimes and suffering inflicted by the own side. For those cultural and religious differences which persist after basic trustbuilding, a contingency approach is proposed: 1) Fostering the exploration of commonalities and differences; 2) If disagreements remain despite a better basic understanding, tolerance of these difference can be based on a better understanding of the values¿ background, and on an acceptance of differing beliefs as equal in valence; 3) Supporting the discovery of joint values to raise awareness for options of cohabitation with differences; disagreements which cannot be solved might be continued within an accepted communicative framework based on these shared values.
    • Juvenile mortality ratios in Anglo-Saxon and Medieval England. A contextual discussion of osteoarchaeological evidence for infanticide and child neglect.

      Schutkowski, Holger; Buckberry, Jo; Dapling, Amy C. (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2012-02-13)
      This thesis presents an osteoarchaeological analysis of juvenile mortality profiles questioning the speculations made by some archaeologists that the under-representation of infants from Anglo-Saxon and medieval burial populations could be due to the practice of infanticide in England during these periods. Morphological and metrical age estimation and sex assessment methods are used to determine the age-at-death and sex of 1275 children from fifty-three Anglo-Saxon and medieval sites located in southern England. The age and sex distribution of the Anglo-Saxon and medieval children under six-years-old are then compared with age-specific United Nations demographic statistics see to whether or not a normative mortality profile is presented by the archaeological populations. This study identified an abnormal age-at-death distribution for the early Anglo-Saxon perinatal individuals. Excess female mortality was observed for the perinatal individuals from all three periods; early Anglo-Saxon, late Anglo-Saxon and medieval, and for the neonatal and infant individuals from the early Anglo-Saxon and medieval periods. The results of this osteoarchaeological analysis are discussed in conjunction with a review of the Anglo-Saxon and medieval documentary evidence which examines the possible social and economic motives for infanticide. Whilst this analysis of the historical sources revealed laws and penitentiary warnings against the neglect and deliberate murder of infants, the late Anglo-Saxon and medieval documents provided little evidence to suggest the social devaluation of women that would support a hypothesis of preferential female infanticide. There are few surviving early Anglo-Saxon documents however, so the significance of the abnormal mortality profiles from this period is considered.
    • Kieślowski's Unknown: How Kieślowski's late films were influenced by his Polishness and his early Polish films

      Goodall, Mark D.; Roberts, Benjamin L.; Draniewicz, Anna B.
      Krzysztof Kieślowski is regarded as one of the most universal Polish film directors. However, the author wishes to argue that his work was deeply rooted in his sense of Polishness. In terms of research methods, this thesis utilises the existing abundant li terature on nation and nationalism to provide an overview of the topic and builds its own theoretical framework and a working definition of Polishness. The latter is influenced by the author’s studies of both English and PolishPolish-language materials. In the c ase study part, this paper mostly uses primary sources, mainly Kieślowski’s films to find traces of Polishness in them. The analysis builds on the theoretical tools illustrated in the first section. This thesis offers two s ets of conclusions. With regard to the theory, it suggests that Polishness is diverse and very contradictory. With regard to the case of Krzysztof Kieślowski, this thesis concludes that his work can be fully understood and appreciated only in the light of his national identity and experi ence presented in his early films made in Poland. It provides as well some explanation of some typical Polish customs to help to better understand Kieślowski and his films by introducing some insight into Polish traditions and characteristics. Finally, the author recommends further research into Polishness in the work of other Polish directors working abroad.
    • Kinetic and mass transfer studies of ozone degradation of organics in liquid/gas-ozone and liquid/solid-ozone systems.

      Tizaoui, Chedly; Grima, N.M.M. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2009-08-24)
      This work was concerned with the determination of mass transfer and kinetic parameters of ozone reactions with four organic compounds from different families, namely reactive dye RO16, triclocarban, naphthalene and methanol. In order to understand the mechanisms of ozone reactions with the organic pollutants, a radical scavenger (t-butanol) was used and the pH was varied from 2 to 9. Ozone solubility (CAL*) is an important parameter that affects both mass transfer rates and chemical reaction kinetics. In order to determine accurate values of the CAL* in the current work, a set of experiments were devised and a correlation between CAL* and the gas phase ozone concentration of the form CAL*(mol/L) = 0.0456 CO3 (g/m3 NTP) was obtained at 20°C. This work has also revealed that t-butanol did not only inhibit hydroxyl radical reactions but also increased mass transfer due to it increasing the specific surface area (aL). Values of the aL were determined to be 2.7 and 3.5 m2/m3 in the absence and presence of t-butanol respectively. It was noticed that the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) has increased following the addition of t-butanol. Ozone decomposition was studied at pH values of 2 to 9 in a 500 mL reactor initially saturated with ozone. Ozone decomposition was found to follow a second order reaction at pH values less than 7 whilst it was first order at pH 9. When the t-butanol was added, the decomposition of ozone progressed at a lower reaction order of 1.5 for pH values less than 7 and at the same order without t-butanol at pH 9. Ozone decomposition was found significant at high pHs due to high hydroxide ion concentration, which promotes ozone decomposition at high pHs. The reaction rate constant (k) of RO16 ozonation in the absence of t-butanol was determined. The result suggests that RO16 degradation occurs solely by molecular ozone and indirect reactions by radicals are insignificant. The chemical reaction of triclocarban with ozone was found to follow second order reaction kinetics. The degradation of naphthalene using the liquid/gas-ozone (LGO) system was studied. This result showed that hydroxyl radicals seemed to have limited effect on naphthalene degradation which was also observed when a radical scavenger (t-butanol) was used. Reaction rate constants were calculated and were found around 100 times higher than values reported in the literature due to differences in experimental conditions. From the results of the experimental investigation on the degradation of methanol by ozone it was found that the rate constant (k) of the degradation reaction increased at pH 9. The reaction stoichiometry was found to have a value of 1 mol/mol. The two steps of the liquid/solid-ozone (LSO) system were studied on beds of silica gel and a zeolitic material (D915) and the ozone adsorption process was modeled and found that particle rate controls ozone adsorption step but liquid rate controls the water treatment step. Ozone desorption with pure deionised water was studied. The water flow rate was found to accelerate the desorption rates but pH was found to decrease the desorption rates. In contrast, the effect of pH was insignificant in the presence of t-butanol. Determination of the adsorption isotherms for RO16, naphthalene and methanol revealed that RO16 did not exhibit adsorption on silica gel, but both naphthalene and methanol showed adsorption on D915 described by Langmuir model.
    • Kinetic modelling simulation and optimal operation of fluid catalytic cracking of crude oil: Hydrodynamic investigation of riser gas phase compressibility factor, kinetic parameter estimation strategy and optimal yields of propylene, diesel and gasoline in fluid catalytic cracking unit

      Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Patel, Rajnikant; John, Yakubu M.
      The Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is known for its ability to convert refinery wastes into useful fuels such as gasoline, diesel and some lighter products such as ethylene and propylene, which are major building blocks for the polyethylene and polypropylene production. It is the most important unit of the refinery. However, changes in quality, nature of crude oil blends feedstock, environmental changes and the desire to obtain higher profitability, lead to many alternative operating conditions of the FCC riser. There are two major reactors in the FCC unit: the riser and the regenerator. The production objective of the riser is the maximisation of gasoline and diesel, but it can also be used to maximise products like propylene, butylene etc. For the regenerator, it is for regeneration of spent or deactivated catalyst. To realise these objectives, mathematical models of the riser, disengage-stripping section, cyclones and regenerator were adopted from the literature and modified, and then used on the gPROMS model builder platform to make a virtual form of the FCC unit. A new parameter estimation technique was developed in this research and used to estimate new kinetic parameters for a new six lumps kinetic model based on an industrial unit. Research outputs have resulted in the following major products’ yields: gasoline (plant; 47.31 wt% and simulation; 48.63 wt%) and diesel (plant; 18.57 wt% and simulation; 18.42 wt%) and this readily validates the new estimation methodology as well as the kinetic parameters estimated. The same methodology was used to estimate kinetic parameters for a new kinetic reaction scheme that considered propylene as a single lump. The yield of propylene was found to be 4.59 wt%, which is consistent with published data. For the first time, a Z-factor correlation analysis was used in the riser simulation to improve the hydrodynamics. It was found that different Z factor correlations predicted different riser operating pressures (90 – 279 kPa) and temperatures as well as the riser products. The Z factor correlation of Heidaryan et al. (2010a) was found to represent the condition of the riser, and depending on the catalyst-to-oil ratio, this ranges from 1.06 at the inlet of the riser to 0.92 at the exit. Optimisation was carried out to maximise gasoline, propylene in the riser and minimise CO2 in the regenerator. An increase of 4.51% gasoline, 8.93 wt.% increase in propylene as a single lump and 5.24 % reduction of carbon dioxide emission were achieved. Finally, varying the riser diameter was found to have very little effect on the yields of the riser products.
    • Kinetic Modelling Simulation and Optimal Operation of Trickle Bed Reactor for Hydrotreating of Crude Oil. Kinetic Parameters Estimation of Hydrotreating Reactions in Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR) via Pilot Plant Experiments; Optimal Design and Operation of an Industrial TBR with Heat Integration and Economic Evaluation.

      Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Wood, Alastair S.; Jarullah, Aysar Talib (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2012-01-30)
      Catalytic hydrotreating (HDT) is a mature process technology practiced in the petroleum refining industries to treat oil fractions for the removal of impurities (such as sulfur, nitrogen, metals, asphaltene). Hydrotreating of whole crude oil is a new technology and is regarded as one of the more difficult tasks that have not been reported widely in the literature. In order to obtain useful models for the HDT process that can be confidently applied to reactor design, operation and control, the accurate estimation of kinetic parameters of the relevant reaction scheme are required. This thesis aims to develop a crude oil hydrotreating process (based on hydrotreating of whole crude oil followed by distillation) with high efficiency, selectivity and minimum energy consumption via pilot plant experiments, mathematical modelling and optimization. To estimate the kinetic parameters and to validate the kinetic models under different operating conditions, a set of experiments were carried out in a continuous flow isothermal trickle bed reactor using crude oil as a feedstock and commercial cobaltmolybdenum on alumina (Co-Mo/¿-Al2O3) as a catalyst. The reactor temperature was varied from 335°C to 400°C, the hydrogen pressure from 4 to10 MPa and the liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) from 0.5 to 1.5 hr-1, keeping constant hydrogen to oil ratio (H2/Oil) at 250 L/L. The main hydrotreating reactions were hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodeasphaltenization (HDAs) and hydrodemetallization (HDM) that includes hydrodevanadization (HDV) and hydrodenickelation (HDNi). An optimization technique is used to evaluate the best kinetic models of a trickle-bed reactor (TBR) process utilized for HDS, HDAs, HDN, HDV and HDNi of crude oil based on pilot plant experiments. The minimization of the sum of the squared errors (SSE) between the experimental and estimated concentrations of sulfur (S), nitrogen (N), asphaltene (Asph), vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni) compounds in the products, is used as an objective function in the optimization problem using two approaches (linear (LN) and non-linear (NLN) regression). The growing demand for high-quality middle distillates is increasing worldwide whereas the demand for low-value oil products, such as heavy oils and residues, is decreasing. Thus, maximizing the production of more liquid distillates of very high quality is of immediate interest to refiners. At the same time, environmental legislation has led to more strict specifications of petroleum derivatives. Crude oil hydrotreatment enhances the productivity of distillate fractions due to chemical reactions. The hydrotreated crude oil was distilled into the following fractions (using distillation pilot plant unit): light naphtha (L.N), heavy naphtha (H.N), heavy kerosene (H.K), light gas oil (L.G.O) and reduced crude residue (R.C.R) in order to compare the yield of these fractions produced by distillation after the HDT process with those produced by conventional methods (i.e. HDT of each fraction separately after the distillation). The yield of middle distillate showed greater yield compared to the middle distillate produced by conventional methods in addition to improve the properties of R.C.R. Kinetic models that enhance oil distillates productivity are also proposed based on the experimental data obtained in a pilot plant at different operation conditions using the discrete kinetic lumping approach. The kinetic models of crude oil hydrotreating are assumed to include five lumps: gases (G), naphtha (N), heavy kerosene (H.K), light gas oil (L.G.O) and reduced crude residue (R.C.R). For all experiments, the sum of the squared errors (SSE) between the experimental product compositions and predicted values of compositions is minimized using optimization technique. The kinetic models developed are then used to describe and analyse the behaviour of an industrial trickle bed reactor (TBR) used for crude oil hydrotreating with the optimal quench system based on experiments in order to evaluate the viability of large-scale processing of crude oil hydrotreating. The optimal distribution of the catalyst bed (in terms of optimal reactor length to diameter) with the best quench position and quench rate are investigated, based upon the total annual cost. The energy consumption is very important for reducing environmental impact and maximizing the profitability of operation. Since high temperatures are employed in hydrotreating (HDT) processes, hot effluents can be used to heat other cold process streams. It is noticed that the energy consumption and recovery issues may be ignored for pilot plant experiments while these energies could not be ignored for large scale operations. Here, the heat integration of the HDT process during hydrotreating of crude oil in trickle bed reactor is addressed in order to recover most of the external energy. Experimental information obtained from a pilot scale, kinetics and reactor modelling tools, and commercial process data, are employed for the heat integration process model. The optimization problem is formulated to optimize some of the design and operating parameters of integrated process, and minimizing the overall annual cost is used as an objective function. The economic analysis of the continuous whole industrial refining process that involves the developed hydrotreating (integrated hydrotreating process) unit with the other complementary units (until the units that used to produce middle distillate fractions) is also presented. In all cases considered in this study, the gPROMS (general PROcess Modelling System) package has been used for modelling, simulation and parameter estimation via optimization process.
    • The kinetics of liquid-liquid extraction of metals in a rotating diffusion cell. A rotating diffusion cell is used to study the rates of extraction of divalent transition metals by di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid and a sulphur analogue. A chemical-diffusion model describes the rate curves.

      Hughes, M.A.; Patel, Hamantkumar Vasudev (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Chemical Engineering,, 2011-08-26)
      A rotating diffusion cell (RDC) has been used to study the kinetics of extraction of the transition metals cobalt (II), nickel (II), copper (II) and zinc (II) from sulphate solutions into either of two extractants held in n-heptane; di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) or di-(2- ethylhexyl) dithiophosphoric acid (D2EHDTPA). The metal concentration was 10 mM and the aqueous pH was held at 4.5. The extractant concentration was varied between 0.015 to 0.4 M. In the case of cobalt extraction by D2EHPA, the metal concentration and the pH were varied Different diluents and modifiers were also studied.The rate of extraction by D2EHDTPA was found to be faster than D2EHPA. A comprehensive mathematical model, based upon established two film theory, was developed and used to describe the above experimental results. The model was also used to predict values of the important parameters. ... These values compared well with those found by other authors but using quite different experimental techniques. OS4 In the case of cobalt extraction by D2EHPA, the more polar diluents lowered the initial rate. The overall model predicts such behaviour where the rate is also dependent on the partition coefficients of the extractant. Finally, the theory of the RDC allows the prediction of the diffusion layer thicknesses, this information together with the reaction zone thickness is used to explore the influences of diffusion and chemical reaction on the overall transfer process. The diffusion processes are calculated to be the most important of the two. This is especially so for the D2EHDTPA systems.
    • A Knowledge Based Approach of Toxicity Prediction for Drug Formulation. Modelling Drug Vehicle Relationships Using Soft Computing Techniques

      Neagu, Daniel; Trundle, Paul R.; Vessey, J.D.; Mistry, Pritesh (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2015)
      This multidisciplinary thesis is concerned with the prediction of drug formulations for the reduction of drug toxicity. Both scientific and computational approaches are utilised to make original contributions to the field of predictive toxicology. The first part of this thesis provides a detailed scientific discussion on all aspects of drug formulation and toxicity. Discussions are focused around the principal mechanisms of drug toxicity and how drug toxicity is studied and reported in the literature. Furthermore, a review of the current technologies available for formulating drugs for toxicity reduction is provided. Examples of studies reported in the literature that have used these technologies to reduce drug toxicity are also reported. The thesis also provides an overview of the computational approaches currently employed in the field of in silico predictive toxicology. This overview focuses on the machine learning approaches used to build predictive QSAR classification models, with examples discovered from the literature provided. Two methodologies have been developed as part of the main work of this thesis. The first is focused on use of directed bipartite graphs and Venn diagrams for the visualisation and extraction of drug-vehicle relationships from large un-curated datasets which show changes in the patterns of toxicity. These relationships can be rapidly extracted and visualised using the methodology proposed in chapter 4. The second methodology proposed, involves mining large datasets for the extraction of drug-vehicle toxicity data. The methodology uses an area-under-the-curve principle to make pairwise comparisons of vehicles which are classified according to the toxicity protection they offer, from which predictive classification models based on random forests and decisions trees are built. The results of this methodology are reported in chapter 6.
    • Knowledge-based approaches to fault diagnosis. The development, implementation, evaluation and comparison of knowledge-based systems, incorporating deep and shallow knowledge, to aid in the diagnosis of faults in complex hydro-mechanical devices.

      Kochhar, A.K.; Doherty, Neil F. (University of BradfordDepartment of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, 2010-07-06)
      The use of knowledge-based systems to aid in the diagnosis of faults in physical devices has grown considerably since their introduction during the 1970s. The majority of the early knowledge-based systems incorporated shallow knowledge, which sought to define simple cause and effect relationships between a symptom and a fault, that could be encoded as a set of rules. Though such systems enjoyed much success, it was recognised that they suffered from a number of inherent limitations such as inflexibility, inadequate explanation, and difficulties of knowledge elicitation. Many of these limitations can be overcome by developing knowledge-based systems which contain deeper knowledge about the device being diagnosed. Such systems, now generally referred to as model-based systems, have shown much promise, but there has been little evidence to suggest that they have successfully made the transition from the research centre to the workplace. This thesis argues that knowledge-based systems are an appropriate tool for the diagnosis of faults in complex devices, and that both deep and shallow knowledge have their part to play in this process. More specifically this thesis demonstrates how a wide-ranging knowledge-based system for quality assurance, based upon shallow knowledge, can be developed, and implemented. The resultant system, named DIPLOMA, not only diagnoses faults, but additionally provides advice and guidance on the assembly, disassembly, testing, inspection and repair of a highly complex hydro-mechanical device. Additionally it is shown that a highly innovative modelbased system, named MIDAS, can be used to contribute to the provision of diagnostic, explanatory and training facilities for the same hydro-mechanical device. The methods of designing, coding, implementing and evaluating both systems are explored in detail. The successful implementation and evaluation of the DIPLOMA and MIDAS systems has shown that knowledge-based systems are an appropriate tool for the diagnosis of faults in complex hydro-mechanical devices, and that they make a beneficial contribution to the business performance of the host organisation. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the most effective and comprehensive knowledge-based approach to fault diagnosis is one which incorporates both deep and shallow knowledge, so that the distinctive advantages of each can be realised in a single application. Finally, the research has provided evidence that the model-based approach to diagnosis is highly flexible, and may, therefore, be an appropriate technique for a wide range of industrial applications.
    • La Via Campesina and the Committee on World Food Security: a transnational public sphere? Identifying and interrogating dynamics of power and voice in transnational food and agricultural policy processes.

      Chesters, Graeme S.; Brem-Wilson, Joshua W. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2013-11-22)
      The transnationalisation of economic relations and the emergence of supranational sites of policy-making and governance have been of concern both to ¿affected publics¿ subject to the remote decisionmaking that such developments entail (and who have mobilised extensively to demonstrate their opposition to these bodies), and scholars keen to locate the possibilities for a democratic politics in the context of the state¿s subsequent diminishment (O¿Brien et al., 2000; Scholte, 2001; Patomäki and Teivainen, 2004; Rittberger et al., 2008). One such group of scholars are public sphere theorists, who, taking up an ongoing concern with the conditions for, and criteria of, effective democratic participation in politically authoritative policy debates, and responding to these new dynamics, have begun to define a new research agenda in search of ¿transnational public spheres¿ (Habermas, 1989; Fraser, 1991; Fraser 2007). That is, they have begun to look to the transnational for sites in which those affected by the exercise (or, indeed, absence) of political authority at this level strive to engage that authority in policy debate. In this thesis, I argue for the existence of one such transnational public sphere, which, being both provoked and constituted by the transnational peasant and small farmers social movement La Via Campesina, promises to be institutionally realised by the recently reformed United Nations Committee on World Food Security (CFS). Identifying and exploring key dynamics relevant to the CFS¿s aspirations for political centrality, inclusivity, and policy debate, moreover, I lay bare the challenges that confront the attainment of this promise.
    • The Labour Party and family income support policy; 1940-1979. An examination of the party's interpretation of the relationship between family income support and the labour market.

      Not named; Pratt, Alan (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Applied Social Studies, 2011-08-24)
      The first two chapters examine the party's policy towards the wage-stop and the poverty trap. Until 1963 the party ignored the wage-stop but from then until 1975 a section of the party campaigned against the regulation expressing moral revulsion and concern about its administration but only rarely opposition to the principle. A Labour government removed the stop when its operation affected only a tiny minority of families. The party was quickly involved in the development of the poverty trap debate being particularly drawn to its disincentive characteristics, but Labour governments, like their Conservative counterparts, soon came to regard the idea as a mere statistical abstraction. After confirming the party's historical ambivalence about Family Allowances the thesis demonstrated that whenever it advocated allowances it did so because it believed the programme would alleviate family poverty rather than augment work incentives. However Labour governments consistently upheld the principle of substitutability, thus conferring de facto support on that less-eligibility dimension of Family Allowances which Macnicol has established informed the coalition government's decision to legislate for the programme in 1945. Despite the party's opposition to Family Income Supplement it became an important element in the Labour government's anti-poverty strategy after the Child Benefits debate in 1976. F.I.S. was criticised because of its contribution to the poverty trap and its potential for assisting in the pauperisation of the low paid, while Child Benefit was supported because it appeared to be a more equitable technique of delivering support to families with dependent children although some in the party were sensitive to the scheme's potential link with improved work incentives. In general, the Labour Party is seen to have failed to develop any coherent and sustained alternative to the ideas and programmes of its political opponents in this critical area of social policy.
    • Laminar heat transfer to Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids in tubes. Temperature and velocity profiles were determined experimentally for heating and cooling of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in tubes and the results compared with theoretical predictions incorporating a temperature-dependent viscosity.

      Wilkinson, W.L.; Pavlovska-Popovska, Frederika (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Chemical Engineering., 2010-01-21)
      This thesis is concerned with a theoretical and experimental study of the hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of viscous fluids flowing in tubes under laminar conditions. Particular attention has been given to the effects of the rheological properties and their variation with temperature. A review of problems of this type showed that in spite of the many potential applications of the results in a wide range of industries the subject had not been well developed and further work is justified in order to fill some of the gaps in our knowledge. The early part of the thesis considers the justification of the work in this way and sets down the scope and objectives. A computer progracune was then developed to allow the governing equations of the problem to be solved numerically to give the velocity and temperature profiles and pressure drop for both heating and cooling conditions. The results were also presented in the form of Nusselt numbers as a function of the Graetz numberp since this form is useful for engineering design purposes. The validity of the predictions were then checked by a programme of experimental work. Temperature and velocity profiles have been measured in order to provide a more severe test of the theory than could be imposed by the measurement of overall heat transfer rates. A combined thermocouple probe/Pitot tube was developed to allow simultaneous measurements of velocity and temperature to be made. A Newtonian oil and two non-Newtonian Carbopol solutions were studied. This is the first time that velocity and temperature profiles have been measured for non-Newtonian fluids in this type of situation. The results of the work heve shown that (a) the velocity and temperature profiles and pressure drops are greatly affected by the temperature dependence of the rheological properties and since real viscous fluids are normally very temperature-sensitive it is important that this effect is properly taken into account. (b) the engineering design correlations commonly used for the prediction of heat transfer coefficients can be seriously in error, especially for cooling conditions and when non-Nevitonian fluids are being considered. (c) a mathematical model can be developed which accurately describes all the phenomena and gives predictions which are very close to those observed experimentally. An important objective was to develop more accurate engineering design correlations for non-isothermal pressure drop and heat transfer rates.
    • Large-scale 3D environmental modelling and visualisation for flood hazard warning.

      Wan, Tao Ruan; Palmer, Ian J.; Wang, Chen (University of BradfordDepartment of Creative Technology. School of Computing, Informatics and Media., 2009-08-24)
      3D environment reconstruction has received great interest in recent years in areas such as city planning, virtual tourism and flood hazard warning. With the rapid development of computer technologies, it has become possible and necessary to develop new methodologies and techniques for real time simulation for virtual environments applications. This thesis proposes a novel dynamic simulation scheme for flood hazard warning. The work consists of three main parts: digital terrain modelling; 3D environmental reconstruction and system development; flood simulation models. The digital terrain model is constructed using real world measurement data of GIS, in terms of digital elevation data and satellite image data. An NTSP algorithm is proposed for very large data assessing, terrain modelling and visualisation. A pyramidal data arrangement structure is used for dealing with the requirements of terrain details with different resolutions. The 3D environmental reconstruction system is made up of environmental image segmentation for object identification, a new shape match method and an intelligent reconstruction system. The active contours-based multi-resolution vector-valued framework and the multi-seed region growing method are both used for extracting necessary objects from images. The shape match method is used with a template in the spatial domain for a 3D detailed small scale urban environment reconstruction. The intelligent reconstruction system is designed to recreate the whole model based on specific features of objects for large scale environment reconstruction. This study then proposes a new flood simulation scheme which is an important application of the 3D environmental reconstruction system. Two new flooding models have been developed. The first one is flood spreading model which is useful for large scale flood simulation. It consists of flooding image spatial segmentation, a water level calculation process, a standard gradient descent method for energy minimization, a flood region search and a merge process. The finite volume hydrodynamic model is built from shallow water equations which is useful for urban area flood simulation. The proposed 3D urban environment reconstruction system was tested on our simulation platform. The experiment results indicate that this method is capable of dealing with complicated and high resolution region reconstruction which is useful for many applications. When testing the 3D flood simulation system, the simulation results are very close to the real flood situation, and this method has faster speed and greater accuracy of simulating the inundation area in comparison to the conventional flood simulation models
    • Large-scale land acquisitions and minorities/indigenous peoples' rights under ethnic federalism in Ethiopia. A Case Study of Gambella Regional State

      Pankhurst, Donna T.; Ojulu, Ojot Miru (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2014-05-01)
      The contemporary phenomenon of the global rush for farmland has generated intense debate from different actors. While the proponents embrace it as a "development opportunity", the critics dub it "land grabbing". Others use a neutral term: "arge-scale land acquisitions". Whatever terminology is used, one fact remains indisputable - since 2007 vast swathes of farmlands in developing countries have been sold or leased out to large-scale commercial farmers. Ethiopia is one of the leading countries in Africa in this regard and, as a matter of state policy, it promotes these investments in peripheral regions that are predominantly inhabited by pastoralists and other indigenous communities. So far, the focus of most of the studies on this phenomenon has been on its economic, food security and environmental aspects. The questions of land rights and political implications have been to a great extent overlooked. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to this knowledge gap by drawing upon the experience of the Gambella regional state - the epicentre of large-scale land acquisition in Ethiopia. To this end, this thesis argues that large-scale land acquisitions in Ethiopia is indeed redefining indigenous communities' right to land, territories and natural resources in fundamental ways. By doing so, it also threatens the post-1991 social contract - i.e. ethnic federalism - between the envisaged new Ethiopian state and its diverse communities, particularly the peripheral minorities and indigenous ethnic groups.
    • Late Quaternary vegetation history of Craven, Yorkshire Dales.

      Gillmore, Gavin; Taylor, Timothy F.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Rushworth, Garry (University of BradfordDivision of Archaeology, School of Life Sciences, 2014-05-01)
      This thesis investigates new late Quaternary vegetation records from four sites in the Craven District of the Yorkshire Dales. The chosen sites fall along an east-west transect broadly following the line of the south Craven Fault. The rationale for site selection was not based on conventional palynological considerations of potential for rich core samples, rather to provide a range of different locations within a distinct micro-region each existing in some specific proximity to known archaeological features. The logic was to attempt to get beyond broad ¿natural¿ climatological and vegetational inferences to understand the nature and level of potential anthropogenically produced change at a local scale as a sub-set of natural change in a broader regional zone over time. The sites reveal varied vegetation histories from the Late Glacial period to the present day and all show signs of being influenced by changes in their arboreal structure at some time, although no two sites have exactly the same vegetation communities until around 5000 BP when the tree canopy is opened to allow an open grassland to dominate. The results indicate the possibility that Betula values, in particular, might indicate cooling events found in the Greenland ice cores for Greenland Interstadial 1 as well as the Pre-boreal Oscillation and the Holocene 9.3 ka BP Event. Closer chronological control of such values could help to determine whether vegetational dynamics were synchronous with fluctuations in temperature and the speed with which trees respond to severe temperature fluctuations. Various hiatuses identified during analysis of the cores may be caused by human influence on the wetlands, given that archaeological evidence from caves shows human occupation of the Craven area from the late Upper Palaeolithic onwards.
    • The law and domestic violence against women. The history of law reforms in relation to domestic violence against women from the 18th to the 20th century and an analysis of women victims' needs in contemporary socio-legal discourse.

      Rose, Hilary; Hanmer, Jalna; Radford, Mary Therese (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Applied Social Studies, 2009-11-09)
      The thesis is divided into two parts, Part I contains four chapters which map the pattern of legal changes relating to domestic violence against women from the 18th century to the 1980s. The history is written from the viewpoint of the legal interventions available to and used by women victims of domestic violence. Statutory enactments, case law and procedural changes in the relevant areas of criminal, family (ecclesiastical) and welfare law are described. Throughout Part I the discussion of the remedies available and reforms implemented is supplemented by the inclusion of case examples and statistical evidence showing local and national patterns of use. Chapter 1 describes the period from the start of the 18th century to the begining of the 20th; Chapter 2,1900 to the 1960s, Chapter 3 from 1969 to 1977 and Chapter 4 the more recent history in the 10 years between 1977 to 1987. Part II contains five chapters and is based upon an analysis of women victim's needs in contemporary socio-legal discourse. Part II grew out of a concern about the part played by the law in the secondary assault of women. The main aim of the discussion is to look at how women victims' self defined needs inform the practice of the law and how the legal approach contributes to the creation of violent relations between men and women in the social institution of heterosexuality. Part II emphasises the use of written and spoken language in interactional settings to define women's needs. The discussion is based upon the analysis of: 1. a survey of women involved in 54 legal cases concerning their partners' behaviour supplemented by interviews with legal advisors; 2. case records obtained from solicitors' offices with the womens' permission; 3. over 300 decisions traced from the published Law Reports; 4.105 press reports of cases of domestic violence against women. Chapter 5 describes the method employed in the research for Part II. Chapter 6 contains the analysis of the women's cases; Chapter 7 the reported decisions and Chapter 8 the press reports. Chapter 9 offers a summary of academic discourse and the abuse of women as well as a concluding discussion on some possibilities for the empowerment of women in law.
    • Leadership effectiveness and cognitive style: A Malaysian government linked companies' (GLCs) perspectives

      Spicer, David P.; Ford, Jackie M.; Busari, Abdul Halim (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2013-12-02)
      The purpose of this study was to explore leadership effectiveness from the perspectives of the Full Range Leadership Model and Cognitive Style Theory within the framework of understanding both followers and leaders as individual¿s attitudes to leadership effectiveness. Leadership effectiveness was measured using newly developed self-report instrument, the Leadership Effectiveness Questionnaire (LEQ) with three scales of effectiveness as suggested by Yukl (2002), which were: 1) aims, 2) followers¿ attitude towards the leader and, 3) group processes. The Full Range leadership approaches were measured using Bass & Avolio¿s (1997) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X-Short, whilst cognitive style was gathered by using Allinson & Hayes¿s (1996) Cognitive Style Index (CSI). A two stage (questionnaire survey followed by semi structured interviews) mixed method study was undertaken. Questionnaire data was gathered from 331 followers and 172 leaders in Malaysian Government-Linked Companies, and 10 leaders involved in the interviews. Findings from the survey suggest that a transformational approach was correlated significantly and positively with effectiveness. Intuitive Cognitive Style also correlated significantly with leadership effectiveness. Findings from the semistructured interviews identified a few more characteristics of an effective leadership such as balance and appreciative, whilst new dimensions of cognitive style identified such as rational and holistic.
    • Leadership Effectiveness from the Perspective of Chief Executive Officers in Kuwait

      Spicer, David P.; Alomar, Abeer S.A.E. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2015)
      This research explores leadership effectiveness in organisations in Kuwait from the perspective of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs). This is an area that has been neglected by the extant literature, and no integrated model for assessing CEO effectiveness exists for us to fully understand the phenomenon. Based on a positivist qualitative research approach, evidence was drawn from 16 CEOs using semi-structured interviews. The evidence was corroborated by using data obtained from participant observations of two CEOs working in the same organisation as the researcher. The results indicated that CEOs perceive leadership effectiveness as driving execution and not necessarily the realisation of goals themselves. Their experiences of leadership lead to CEOs in Kuwait believing that leadership effectiveness depends on their leadership style, relationship with the Board and the Executives, experience and family ground, societal and organisational culture, the business environment and CEO characteristics. On the basis of the participants’ perceptions of leadership effectiveness, it is recommended that CEO leadership development in Kuwait should focus on these areas, as this should equip CEOs to be effective in formulating clear visions and executing strategies to enable economic development of the country, and this should help them to compete globally. As the study focused on private and public companies, future research could consider CEOs from governmental and not-for-profit organisations to expand the sample of CEOs.
    • Learning and skills development in a fragmented industry. The case of the UK television sector.

      Grugulis, C. Irena; Spicer, David P.; Stoyanova, Dimitrinka Draganova (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2010-05-19)
      This thesis discusses how the restructuring of the UK television industry in the 1980s and 1990s has affected learning and skills development in the sector. It is based on 71 semi-structured interviews with television freelancers and key informants in the industry, and a case study of a small regional independent company developed through semi-structured interviews and three months of participant observation. To investigate the current learning and skills development mechanisms, this thesis engages with community-based learning theories. These are discussed in relation to industry characteristics such as commissioning and independent production and labour market realities related to freelance work and educational provision. The findings reveal that the traditional on the job learning mechanisms within communities of practice are challenged under the new structural context characterised by unrestricted entry and progression and short-term projects within an uncertain employment context. Commercial pressures affect both the access to learning opportunities and the learning experience, mainly because of the lack of legitimate and gradual experiential learning possibilities, short-term involvement in the industry under pressures to perform. The thesis also discusses the realities of the work in a small regional independent production company as well as its benefits and limitations as a venue for community-based learning. This thesis concludes with several policy recommendations which address some of the main challenges to the sustainable skills development in UK television. These recommendations subscribe to the need for introducing legitimate traineeships, entry rules and detaching learning from the commercial pressures in the sector.
    • Learning journeys with international Masters students in UK higher education.

      Trueman, Myfanwy; Sture, Judi; Ford, Jackie M.; Sedgley, Martin T. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2015-07-01)
      International Masters students face daunting challenges in adjusting to a startlingly different UK academic discourse within a short time. Little research has been conducted into these challenges and successful transition strategies. A review of learning development literature identified a set of three models, which has not been related theoretically to international Masters students. The latest, critical model, Academic Literacies, especially offers important insights into these students’ difficulties and potential for integration. This research design explored these learning journeys in depth through interviews in a longitudinal study of MBA and MSc students during the 2009-10 academic year. The rich data were investigated through the qualitative methodology of narrative analysis, with twin aims of recognising similarities but also important differences across the students’ learning experiences. A majority experienced strongly emotional learning journeys. These followed an affective pattern with a downturn early in the academic year influenced by the degree of unfamiliarity in the new culture and academic discourse, mirrored by a corresponding improvement in emotional state during Semester 2 or 3 as these external issues became more familiar and comfortable. Self-efficacy emerged as an especially important factor in achieving academic success, and students’ progression was mapped against this variable using an established, U-shaped transition curve model. The study identifies practical learning development interventions, but also highlights the importance of educational practitioners becoming pedagogically self-reflective to empathise more genuinely with international students’ struggles, and to learn from their diverse experiences in ways that can enrich the process of internationalising western education.