• Identification and characterisation of anti-platelet antibodies in ITP patients.

      Lindsey, Nigel J.; Aghabeigi, N. (University of BradfordBiomedical Sciences, 2011-12-07)
    • Identification and characterisation of antiplatelet antibodies in ITP patients

      Lindsey, Nigel J.; Aghabeigi, Nabiollah
      The autoimmune disease known as autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is clinically defined by a low numbers of platelets in the circulation blood. Anti-platelet antibodies bind to glycoprotein molecules on the membranes of platelets and result in their dysfunction and destruction. Despite a growing body of information about ITP, it is difficult to isolate and characterise anti-platelet antibodies, because only limited monoclonal antibodies are available from ITP patients. This study used a phage display system to recognise Fab anti-platelet antibodies. Anti-platelet Fab-expressing phage was isolated by sequential panning of an ITP Fab library against normal non-ITP platelets. After isolation, the anti-platelet Fab-expressing phage was characterised by ELISA and Western blotting. The Fab-bearing phage pool obtained from five rounds of panning was analysed in order to determine its anti-platelet reactivity. Of the phage colonies obtained, 100 colonies of different sizes were randomly selected for reaction with whole platelets, using Ml3 phage as a negative control. 12 colonies of them had strong reactions against the whole platelet preparation, but only four colonies showed substantial reactivity against the lysed platelet preparation (lysate). Colony S7 showed highest the greatest degree of binding to both the lysate and the whole platelet preparation. The specificity of the four colonies (S2, S7, S8 and S9) that had strong positive reactions against platelet antigens was determined for the glycoprotein component GP Ilb/IIIa. Further characterisation of the proteins in the lysate preparation was carried out using blotting techniques. The protein content of the four Fab-bearing phage colonies was quantified under the non-reducing conditions of Western blotting to evaluate their ability to recognise platelet antigens. Three of the four colonies showed three bands representing proteins with different molecular weights. Each of these three colonies had one band that corresponded to a protein of molecular weight 92 kD. The fourth colony showed only a single band, but this band also corresponded to a 92-kD protein.
    • The identification of bovine tuberculosis in zooarchaeological assemblages. Working towards differential diagnostic criteria.

      Bond, Julie M.; Buckberry, Jo; Knüsel, Christopher J.; Wooding, Jeanette E. (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences. Division of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences., 2010)
      The study of human palaeopathology has developed considerably in the last three decades resulting in a structured and standardised framework of practice, based upon skeletal lesion patterning and differential diagnosis. By comparison, disarticulated zooarchaeological assemblages have precluded the observation of lesion distributions, resulting in a dearth of information regarding differential diagnosis and a lack of standard palaeopathological recording methods. Therefore, zoopalaeopathology has been restricted to the analysis of localised pathologies and ‘interesting specimens’. Under present circumstances, researchers can draw little confidence that the routine recording of palaeopathological lesions, their description or differential diagnosis will ever form a standard part of zooarchaeological analysis. This has impeded the understanding of animal disease in past society and, in particular, has restricted the study of systemic disease. This research tackles this by combining the disciplines of human palaeopathology and zoopalaeopathology and focusing on zoonotic disease. The primary aim of this research was to investigate the skeletal manifestation of bTB in cattle, sheep/goat and pig to establish differential diagnostic criteria for its identification in zooarchaeological assemblages. Methods commonplace in human palaeopathology were adapted and applied to zoopalaeopathology, in addition to radiography and aDNA analysis. The results emphasise the difficulties but also the potential associated with the identification of systemic diseases in zooarchaeological assemblages. An approach to the classification of potentially infectious lesions is presented that enables the calculation of crude prevalence in disarticulated assemblages. In addition, the potential for a DNA analysis to shed further light on animal disease in the past is emphasised.
    • Identification of human hair follicle antigens targeted in the presumptive autoimmune hair follicle disorder Alopecia Areata and their potential functional relevance In Vitro. Methods development for isolation and identification of Alopecia Areata-relevant human hair follicle antigens using a proteomics approach and their functional assessment using an Ex Vivo hair follicle organ culture model.

      Tobin, Desmond J.; Leung, Man Ching (University of BradfordDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, 2010-06-09)
      Alopecia areata (AA) is a putative autoimmune hair loss disorder. It mainly affects the scalp hair but can also involve body hair, and can also affect the nail and the eye. While there are may be several lines of evidence to support the autoimmune basis of AA, there is still very little information on the hair follicle autoantigen(s) involved in its pathogenesis. In this project, serum antibodies (AA=10, control=10) were used to immunoprecipitate AA-relevant target antigens from normal human scalp hair follicle extracts. These immunoprecipitates were analysed by LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry for target protein identification. This part of the project involved substantial methods development. Trichohyalin was immunoprecipitated by all AA sera, but by only 5 normal sera. Importantly, the mean Mascot scores of the AA group was significantly higher than the normal group (p=0.005). Keratin 16 was also identified from immunoprecipitates as another potential AA-relevant target antigen. Functional studies by ex vivo whole hair follicle organ culture using commercial antibodies to trichohyalin and keratin 16 significantly inhibited hair fibre elongation compared to controls. Indirect immunofluorescence studies revealed that AA sera contained higher immunoreactivity against normal human scalp anagen hair follicles compared to normal sera. Immunoreactivities were mainly in the outer root sheath and inner root sheath, and less so to the medulla and hair bulb matrix. Double immunofluorescence studies of AA and normal serum with anti-trichohyalin antibody (AE15) revealed co-localisation of 9 of the AA sera antibodies with trichohyalin in the inner root sheath (mostly in Henle¿s, less in Huxley¿s/inner root sheath cuticle), but only weakly in 3 normal sera. This study supports the involvement of an antibody response to anagen-specific hair follicles antigens in AA. Moreover, there may be some evidence that these antibodies may have a pathogenic role.
    • Identification, Examination and Management of Risk Factors behind Dwelling Fires in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Managerial and Policy Perspective

      Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Al-Sharabi, Faisal (University of BradfordFaculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2018-03-23)
      Fire incidents are a central issue in Saudi civil defence. Despite detailed regulation concerning firefighting equipment dealing with dwelling fires, fires occur frequently. Globally, research on dwelling fire safety is relatively new. Most studies focus on human factors, incidence and causal issues. Few studies examine management or policy-making perspectives towards managing these individual agents. Thus, a detailed study on understanding the management of these factors for dwelling fires is long overdue. The study uses an inductive approach to investigate key management issues in reducing dwelling fires in Saudi Arabia. This qualitative study consisted of twelve indepth semi-structured interviews and four focus groups with senior managers of the Civil Defence Division dealing with fire safety. A sustainability-based framework is developed to map the critical issues in generating a long-term planning solution to policy and management of fire hazard and risk in Saudi Arabia. Critical drivers of this sustainability approach are good management, regulation, governance practices: especially accountability and transparency; reduction of tribalism, bureaucracy, and burns unit efficiency. However, given the modern environment of communications, information technology and communications, and in particular public education, are viewed as important mediators between drivers and sustainability. The critical role of knowledge generation is also positioned as a mediator. The framework proposed is a paradigm shift from merely managing fire incidents on a case by case basis to a proactive risk reduction strategy. This represents an original solution to managing fire hazards at a national level and an important contribution to the fire management literature.
    • Identifying Green Logistics Best Practice Leading to the Efficient Management of Resources and Waste in Thailand’s Public Hospitals

      Barber, Kevin D.; Breen, Liz; Bandoophanit, Thianthip (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2015)
      The aim of this study is to identify green logistics (GL) best practice leading to the efficient management of resources and waste in Thai public hospitals. This work is influenced by and is aligned with the Thailand’s 2nd National Logistics and Supply Chain Research Strategies (2012-2016). The GL practices of six public hospitals were investigated, chosen to give coverage of the different types/sizes, locations and a range of environmental performance issues. Hospital visits were undertaken to collect data by interview, documentation and observation approaches. The GL best practices were principally identified by using developed indicators and a cross-case analysis method. The results of this study showed that resource and waste flows appeared very complicated within Thai hospitals. Thus, effectively introducing and managing GL within these settings requires the coordination of all staff (clinical and other), and the consideration of all environmental impacts from product purchasing through to waste disposal. Many beneficial practices for successfully reducing resource consumption and waste were identified. Key findings were that green initiatives need to be supported by: sufficient environmental education; two-way communication; effective evaluation and recording systems; and Director-level support. Importantly, GL adoption in the Thai context should be grounded in the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy concept (e.g. moderation, wisdom, and happiness), as well as contemporary hospital logistics theory and practice. Finally, it is recommended that the current Hospital Accreditation process is changed to integrate sustainable best practices, and that some pertinent government regulations and policies should be reviewed and changed as they were seen to be counterproductive and indeed in many cases it was proven that the enactment of the policies themselves actually increased waste.
    • Identifying organizational learning dimensions that promote patient safety culture: A study of hospital pharmacies in Kuwait

      Johnson, Craig L.; Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Abdallah, Wael (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2019)
      The need for a positive safety culture in healthcare is essential. It not only advances the prevention and reduction of possible medical errors and threats to patient safety, but also enhances the overall quality of healthcare services provided, especially in respect of medication safety. While the evolution and surge in hospital pharmacies has bolstered treatment possibilities, the risk of harm to patients has also increased as errors in the provision of medication by pharmacists create a threat to patient safety. The increasing need to deploy a protective measure to enhance patient safety culture in the healthcare is imperative suggesting the necessity for the inclusion of new knowledge through the process of organizational learning. Safety culture and organizational learning are complex constructs which may be measured, to some extent, by validated instruments. The current study seeks to assess the reliability and validity of a translated Arabic version of the learning organization survey short-form (LOS-27), and the pharmacy survey on patient safety culture (PSOPSC) through the evaluation of pharmacy staff’s knowledge about organizational learning and patient safety culture in public and private hospital pharmacies of Kuwait. The aim is to explore the relationship between organizational learning and patient safety culture in hospital pharmacy settings through the LOS-27 and PSPOSC instruments. In addition, the relationship between the different dimensions of organizational learning and pharmacy patient safety culture is explored. The results highlighted the adequacy of the Arabic translation of the LOS-27 and PSOPSC questionnaires as they depicted the reliability and validity consistent with the original surveys results. It was also found that in the context of Kuwaiti pharmacies, organizational learning was positively related to performance of the staff in creating a positive patient safety culture. Several dimensions of the organizational learning showed association with various elements of patient safety culture in pharmacy settings, specifically: training, management that reinforces learning, and a supportive learning environment had the strongest effects on the pharmacy patient safety culture dimensions. The contribution of this thesis is in three areas. First, it is the first research that links organizational learning with patient safety culture in a hospital pharmacy setting (theoretical contribution). Second, the research is useful for research scholars as it combines the two questionnaires, LOS-27 and PSOPSC, on the same participants using a single form to explore the relationship between organizational learning and patient safety culture in a hospital pharmacy setting and their dimensions (method contribution). Third, this research contributed to the currently limited literature that examines patient safety culture and organizational learning by considering the context of Kuwait (Contextual Contribution).
    • Identifying the best practice in traditional and electronic banking operations strategies in developing economies. (The case of Jordan). Balancing resources with customer expectations in rapidly developing business environment.

      Barber, Kevin D.; Beach, Roger; Migdadi, Yazan K.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2011-11-18)
      The aim of this study is to identify the best practices in traditional and electronic banking operations strategy in Jordan as a case study of developing economies over the period 1999 to 2008. During this period numerous changes faced banks in Jordan: new banking law was launched, the banks were directed towards complying with the Basel Accord II, and the banks adopted more e-banking channels. Only the practices of all local banks were investigated due to their superior performance. A number of questionnaires were used to collect the data from different individuals in these banks. Further, annual reports were analysed and websites were reviewed. Two data-analysis approaches were used to identify the key strategies of traditional and electronic banking in Jordan: competitive position analysis and cluster analysis. Analysis revealed eight best practices of traditional banking and four best practices of electronic banking were adopted. Best practices are presented as prediction models. These models combine actions with capabilities and performance. The traditional banking predication models are: branches urban accessibility, branches sites accessibility (percentage of sites covered), branches sites accessibility (number of branches sites covered), account transaction time, new credit product flexibility, account customer waiting time, account transaction cost, loan approval costs, and branches layout quality. The e-banking prediction models are: Internet banking transaction time, telephone banking volume flexibility, ATM suburban accessibility, and ATM sites accessibility. This research revealed that; financial performance achieved by e-banking strategy patterns is significantly lower than traditional banking. Also customers satisfaction, retention, and deposit market of e-banking are significantly lower than traditional banking, which indicates that the best operational practices in Jordan are still more traditional oriented despite the significant direction of banks in Jordan toward adopting e-banking channel.
    • Identity in the Dark Age. A Biocultural Analysis of Early Medieval Scotland

      Buckberry, Jo; Bond, Julie M.; Lerwick, Danika C. (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2014)
      This thesis explores identity in early mediaeval Scotland (ca 800-1300AD) using biological and burial deposition data. During this period Scotland was developing as a unified kingdom. The Norse, Scots, and Anglo-Saxons battled for political power. The Saxon and Irish Churches were pressuring for superiority over each other and over local beliefs. Many research areas in bioarchaeology have moved away from the more simplistic processual approach after a renewed understanding of the complexities of human existence. However, this newer methodology has not been sufficiently applied to early mediaeval Scottish studies. Common doxa still permeates the discipline despite the lack of critical assessment. Doxa tends to separate the early mediaeval Scottish world into the circumscribed categories of Norse (or ‘Viking’) and native, Christian and pagan. These commonly accepted site designations regarding ethnicity and religion were used to assess three hundred and twenty-one individuals from 21 sites. These individuals were analysed macroscopically for age, sex, stature and limb ratios, craniometrics, joint degeneration and disease, musculo-skeletal stress markers, dental pathologies, and overall health and disease. This data was compared to the available documentation for the sites considering site location, body position, cemetery type, grave enclosures, and grave furnishings. Statistical and qualitative methods were used to compare the data. Results suggest that there are slight differences within the population that may suggest some legitimacy for common site designations; however, the overall conclusion implies caution in the use of oversimplified categorising and a generally egalitarian view of identity for the early mediaeval people in Scotland.
    • The Identity, Agency and Political Influence of al-Hakkamat Baggara Women Poets in Armed Conflict in Darfur, Sudan, from 1980s to 2006.

      Pankhurst, Donna T.; Musa, Suad Mustafa Elhag (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2011)
    • Ill fares the Land? The concept of national food self sufficiency in political discourse 1880-1939.

      Sheeran, George; Jennings, Paul; Hargreaves, David William (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological and Environmental Science, 2013-11-27)
      After the repeal of the Corn Laws ended the policy of protectionism which had enabled Britain to feed herself from within her own resources, free trade resulted in domestic food production constituting only 30% of the British diet. This study looks at the political discourse from 1880 to 1939 when the ¿empty countryside¿ became a symbol of agricultural decline. Emerging radical and socialist narratives put forward approaches for rural regeneration and increased food production. Other narratives suggested that agricultural decline was one manifestation of national decline whereby a self sufficient and proud nation was being betrayed by Capitalism. Both Left and Right offered up the prospect of different solutions predicated upon shared perceptions of ¿Englishness.¿ The experience of Irish famine failed to inform political action or policy making. The study notes the importance of War upon the development of food policy. Increasingly, the State joined forces with the NFU in a corporate endeavour which sought to manage, rather than increase, food production and created structures which became increasingly important in the context of rearmament. Increased food production was rejected upon defence grounds in that free trade and a navy were seen as appropriate safeguards. Those countries which sought to follow self sufficiency ¿ or autarky ¿ are portrayed as warlike in their intentions; by 1939 all mainstream political parties rejected the notion of artificially increased food production. Those who continued to press for increased food production concentrated either upon earlier pre Capitalist societies or were attracted by Fascism and strong leadership. After such searches became increasingly problematic there was emphasis upon the soil, with the adoption of an approach which was both practical and mystical.
    • Images of the west as portrayed in the political cartoons of the United Kingdom-based Arab media. A survey of the stereotypes and images exchanged between the Arab world and the west with an analysis of the United Kingdom-based Arab media's presentation of the west.

      Rigby, Andrew; Awad, Ali A.Y. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2010-07-13)
      DESCRIPTION: The research is divided into five chapters (plus an introduction and a conclusion) as follows: INTRODUCTION, in which the work is introduced, the problem is identified, and the need for the research. is presented. CHAPTER ONE: The image of the Arab in the West (from the old sources up to the present time). CHAPTER TWO: The Arab view of the West, The development and the changing approach in viewing the World from pre- Islamic Arabia including the contemporary schools of thought in the Arab world. CHAPTER THREE: Political cartoons as a medium of communication, their influence and role in opinion changing and image making. CHAPTER FOUR: UK-Based Arab Owned Mass Media. A survey of the newspapers and the magazines published in the United Kingdom and owned by Arab personalities, companies, governments and political parties. That includes the 38 daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly publications. This chapter studies the attitudes and presentations of the Arab media in a definite period of time, in regard to the West. (from Dec. 1987 till March 1991) CHAPTER FIVE : The Case Study. The image of the West in the Arab-owned press through political cartoons (four London-based daily newspapers). The findings of the field work, categorising and analysing the main features and elements of the image. CONCLUSION: Room for Improvement. Recommendations for better understanding, presentation and improvement in the Arab-West International relations and presentations. The major, original, part of the thesis has been devoted to surveying the Britain-based Arab press, as well as an analysis of the coverage of some of these papers and magazines of the West, using the political cartoon as indicators of the public perceptions of the West. The research also makes an attempt to trace the main outline of the historical development of perceptions of the West in the Arab mind. Appendices; Appendix(A): Arab Political Cartoonists. Appendix(B): Cartoons of Arabs in the Western Media. Appendix(C); Cartoons of the West in the Arab Media. Bibliography
    • An immunohistopathological and functional investigation of β3 integrin antagonism as a therapeutic strategy in cancer. Characterisation, development, and utilisation of preclinical cancer models to investigate novel ¿3 integrin anatgonists.

      Shnyder, Steven D.; Sheldrake, Helen M.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Alshammari, Fatemah O.F.O. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, 2014-05-07)
      Tumour cell dissemination is a major issue with the treatment of cancer, thus new therapeutic strategies which can control this process are needed. Antagonism of integrins highly expressed in tumours is one potential strategy. The integrins are transmembrane glycoprotein adhesive receptors. Two of the integrins, αVβ3 and αIIbβ3, are highly expressed in a number of tumours and induce bi-directional signalling through their interaction with extracellular matrix proteins, and growth factor receptors. Through this signalling they play an important role in a number of cellular processes that are involved in tumour dissemination such as tumour growth, migration, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Dual αIIbβ3 and αVβ3 integrin antagonism will have a direct effect on β3-expressing tumour cells that leads to the inhibition of cell migration and dissemination. Furthermore, through targeting tumour cell interaction with endothelial cells and platelets, this will also lead to inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. The aim of this project was to characterise the expression of αVβ3 and αIIbβ3 integrin in a panel of tumour cell lines and in human tumour xenograft samples, and to develop and utilise cell-based models to investigate potential novel β3 antagonists. The expression of αV and β3 subunits was detected in xenograft tissue using immunoblotting techniques. A panel of cell lines of different tumour types including melanoma, prostate, breast, colon and non small cell lung carcinoma was then characterised for αVβ3 and αIIbβ3 integrin expression using immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Melanoma cell lines demonstrated the strongest αVβ3 expression. No αIIbβ3 integrin expression was seen in any of the cell lines evaluated. A selection of cell lines with varying αVβ3 expression were then used to develop a functional test for cell migration, the scratch wound healing assay. Migration of tumour cells that expressed αVβ3 integrin was inhibited by the known β3 antagonists, cRGDfV peptide and LM609 antibody. A panel of 12 potential novel β3 integrin antagonists was screened for cytotoxicity and activity in the validated scratch assay. ICT9055 was the most effective antagonist in inhibition of M14 cell migration as determined by the scratch assay, with an IC50 of < 0.1 µM. Therefore the work presented in this thesis has established models and tools for evaluating potential novel β3 integrin antagonists, and identified a promising molecule to progress for further preclinical evaluation.
    • The impact of British Christian missionaries on Indian religious, social and cultural life between 1800 and 1857. With particular reference to the role of missionaries in the events leading up to the 1857 Mutiny

      Gregory, James R.T.E.; Price, Munro; Bi, Nagina (University of BradfordDepartment of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2014-05-01)
      This study examines the impact of British Christian missionaries in the north of India between 1800 and 1857. The study focuses on the cross cultural encounter between the Christian Missionaries and the Muslim inhabitants of three Indian cities: Agra, Delhi and Peshawar. Alongside this, the role of the missionaries in creating anti ¿ British sentiment in Agra and Delhi, is examined. Crucially, an assessment is made as to what extent Christian missionary involvement in these three cities influenced people to revolt against the British in 1857.
    • Impact of business forecasting on demand planning. A strategy for improving business forecasting and reducing inventories throughout the supply chain for fast moving consumer goods in the Middle East market.

      Betts, James; Tanwari, Anwar U. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Department of Industrial Technology, 2010-06-17)
      Poor quality of information and forecasting create a number of problems for manufacturing companies, such as poor planning of products and insufficient service levels, which leads to increased inventory and stock holding or stockouts and increased total costs. Cussons (UK) Limited is experiencing precisely these problems. Apart from these problems normally associated with forecasting demand for fast moving consumer goods there is an additional problem of reconciling the Western calendar with the Muslim calendar, and a recognition of the effects that Muslim religious holidays, as opposed to Christian religious holidays, have on demand. Muslim religious holidays rotate backwards with regard to the Western calendar, but in fact they occur at known dates and therefore the effect they have on demand for products can be taken into consideration when attempting to forecast demand. An additional problem that influences Cussons' sales in the market is the seasonal pattern of demand. Due to this, there is an increase in demand for Cussons' products during summer months. From the analysis of both data sets it was identified that the warehouse movement data is less variable and more reliable for business forecasting than order data. In this thesis, these forecasting problems are examined as a case study, focusing on these particular problems. To overcome these problems and to improve business forecasting of Cussons' products in the Middle East market, a forecasting strategy has been suggested which will enable Cusson's to reduce the inventories throughout the supply chain and to improve their customer's service.
    • The impact of business orientations on customer loyalty. An empirical study using a case study approach.

      Mohammed, Zairi; Yang, Deli; Whitelock, Jeryl M.; Bettany, Shona M.M.; Khan, Osman (University of BradfordEuropean Centre for TQM, 2009)
      Customer loyalty is considered to be critically important to growth, profitability and sustainability. It has received much attention by practitioner and managers. However, some important variables about the different types of loyalty have remained unclear. While businesses look towards adopting various strategies to help them grow and succeed in the marketplace, a number of key business orientations have emerged. Each of these orientations has claimed to increase both profitability and customer loyalty for an organization. This research has examined both of these factors, as well as their inter-relationships. The research was conducted in a two part study, based on a sequential triangulation approach. The first study focused on finding out the differences between two of the highest types of loyalties, attitudinal and emotional. The study, based on 40 interviews with customers from three different companies, across two cultural settings (Asian and European), has led to the emergence of key differentiating factors. The second study focused on the relationships between business orientations and customer loyalty. This study was based on six case studies of best practice firms. The study found a positive link between business orientations and loyalty. Moreover, a set of critical success factors were identified that would enable companies to implement effective loyalty management systems. Based on both of these two studies, a loyalty management model has been presented. The model helps to improve our understanding of loyalty, and would be of use to managers who would want to develop and manage customer loyalty in an organisation.
    • Impact of combined microprocessor control of the prosthetic knee and ankle on gait termination in unilateral trans-femoral amputees. Limb mechanical work performed on centre of mass to terminate gait on a declined surface using linx prosthetic device

      Buckley, John G.; Abdulhasan, Zahraa M. (University of BradfordDivision of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, 2018)
      The major objective of this thesis was to investigate how the use of a recently developed microprocessor-controlled limb system altered the negative mechanical work done by the intact and prosthetic limb when trans-femoral amputees terminated gait. Participants terminated gait on a level surface from their self-selected walking speed and on declined surface from slow and customary speeds, using limb system prosthesis with microprocessor active or inactive. Limb negative work, determined as the integral of the negative mechanical (external) limb power during the braking phase, was compared across surface, speed and microprocessor conditions. Halting gait was achieved predominantly from negative work done by the trailing/intact. Trailing versus leading limb mechanical work imbalance was similar to how able body individuals halted gait. Importantly, the negative limb work performed on the prosthetic side when terminating gait on declined surface was increased when the microprocessor was active for both slow and customary speeds (no difference on level surface) but no change on intact limb. This indicates the limb system’s ‘ramp-descent mode’ effectively/dynamically altered the hydraulic resistances at the respective joints with evidence indicating changes at the ankle were the key factor for increasing the prosthetic limb negative work contribution. Findings suggest that trans-femoral amputees became more assured using their prosthetic limb to arrest body centre of mass velocity when the limb system’s microprocessor was active. More generally findings suggest, trans-femoral amputees should obtain clinically significant biomechanical benefits from using a limb system prosthesis for locomotion involving adapting to their everyday walking where adaptations to an endlessly changing environment are required.
    • The impact of commercial global television on cultural change and identity formation. A study of Kurdish women and the Turkish soap opera 'Noor'.

      Roberts, Benjamin L.; Goodall, Mark D.; Hamasaeed, Nazakat Hussain (University of BradfordBradford Media School, School of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2012-05-15)
      This thesis aimed to report on the qualitative research conducted which identified the role played by international television soap operas in identity formation and cultural change in relation to Kurdish women. Currently, Kurdish women live in a cultural context where traditional values often conflict with modern values when it comes to behaviour deemed appropriate for their gender. Through the impact of international television soap operas, Kurdish women come to identify themselves as being ¿traditional¿ while at the same time they attempt to integrate non-traditional beliefs into their value system. This study looked at the relationship between Kurdish women¿s exposure to international television, soap operas and consumerism, as well as the problems which they create in terms of non-Western women¿s identity formation. This thesis has documented the lives and experiences of 21 female Kurdish participants, aged between 18 and 40, through in-depth interviews and observations. The thesis assumes that the views recorded are representative of the general viewpoint of viewers of the international soaps. Open-ended, in-depth interviews about women were used to explore viewing habits and preferences for various soaps. This thesis incorporates and expresses the ideas which were recorded with regards to the accepted ¿typical¿ characteristics of men and 4 women ¿ it is these characteristics which play an important role in selfformation. It became evident that these women had incorporated values from the traditional Kurdish culture and the modern way of life. The Kurdish women cannot be said to have a ¿modernist¿ outlook on gender-appropriate behaviour, as they are still endemically entrenched in traditional Kurdistan worldviews. The qualitative research analysed the level in which the soap operas act as a kind of medium between the values of modernity and those of tradition. This study, in addition, demonstrates the appeal that soap operas can have on the norms, and other aspects, in the Kurdistan Region, and therefore illustrates that the soaps have an active role as a mechanism of change in Kurdistan. Thus, the research demonstrates the power of the soap operas and their effects on the Kurdish people in this region. Furthermore, this research explored the current media environment in the Kurdistan Region by reviewing the dependency of Kurdish viewers, and the Kurdish television channels, on foreign and imported television programmes into the region.
    • Impact of Culture on Employment Relations Practice in Former British Colonies: A Comparative Case Study of Cadbury (Nigeria) Plc and Cadbury Worldwide.

      Cornelius, Nelarine; Perrett, Robert A.; George, Olusoji J. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2011-06-22)
      The Paternalistic employment relations practice was in existence in most areas now known as Nigeria before the advent of the British colonialists (Ubeku, 1993).The British colonialists replaced the Nigerian Paternalistic employment relations system with their Voluntarist employment relations system. This was done without any considerations for the differences in the socio-cultural realties of Britain and Nigeria and the differences in the socio-cultural realities of the various ethnic groups that were merged to become Nigeria. This thesis however demonstrates the importance of socio-cultural factors in the transfer. The Nigerian Paternalistic employment relations practice was based on the predominantly agricultural economy, culture and traditions which formed the basis for systems of work and reward while the British Voluntarist employment relations practice was developed based on the prevailing social, political and economic philosophy at the period of industrial revolution of the 18th and early 19th centuries in Britain. This was that of lasisez-faire, with respect for individual liberty based on the Benthamite utilitarian principle (Yesufu, 1982:31; Florence, 1957:184). As there are very few studies (if any) on comparative employment relations practice between the developed countries of the world and the developing African countries; this study relying on secondary sources of data collection and the case study methodology identified a close relationship between culture and employment relations practice in particular and management practices in general. The study concludes that it is very problematic if not impossible to device a template of employment relations practice and other management practices in one cultural area and transfer to another cultural area or areas.
    • The impact of direct foreign investment upon industrial structure. A case study of the uk electrical and instrument engineering industry: A reappraisal of the model of industrial structure incorporating the impact of direct foreign investment, utilising empirical evidence from a survey of the electrical and instrument engineering industry.

      Buckley, Peter J.; Newton, David J. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Management and Administration, 2009-10-02)
      With the development of multinational corporations, the United Kingdom has experienced increasing penetration of its economy by foreign affiliates. This is particularly noticeable in high technology industries such as Electrical and Instrument Engineering. The thesis identifies the mechanism by which direct foreign investment can influence industrial structure in such an industry; charts the effects within the UK Electrical and Instrument Engineering Industry; and identifies the extent to which this impact varies with the nationality of the investor. The study begins with a synthesis of the comprehensive and complex material available upon industrial/market structure and direct foreign investment. Chapters 2 and 3 demonstrate that the structure of Electrical and Instrument Engineering has changed significantly since the inter-war years. Productive capacity has expanded faster than that of any other UK industry. Throughout the minimum-list-headings of the industry market power has become more concentrated in the hands of the largest companies. Individual affiliates now display greater product specialisation and vertical integration, whilst the level of entry barriers has risen steadily. The model presented in chapter-3 hypothesises that direct foreign investment can be related to industrial structure in three distinct ways. Firstly, that a relationship exists between the distribution of foreign affiliates 11 25 I and the structural characteristics of the industries in which they operate. Secondly, that a similar relationship exists across the minimum-list-headings of each individual industry. Thirdly, that the operating characteristics of foreign affiliates in any individual minimum-list-heading differ from those of domestic companies. The first two of these are termed the Destination impact, and the third the Behavioural impact of direct foreign investment. The results of a survey of over 500 British and foreign owned companies, sub-divided by origin and size, suggest that foreign affiliates have contributed significantly to the changing structure of Electrical and Instrument Engineering both in their destination and behaviour. The destination of foreign investors was significantly related to areas displaying the fastest growth of productive capacity; imperfection of competition; technologically specialised and vertically integrated operations; and high barriers to entry. The behaviour of individual foreign affiliates was found to differ significantly from that of their UK counterparts (including affiliates of UK multinationals). Foreign owned companies exhibited high levels of sales. growth and efficiency; a disproportionate impact upon the distribution of market power; greater product specialisation and levels of vertical integration; and a significant contribution to the level of entry barriers. This influence was compounded by a greater productivity and profitability in the foreign affiliate; a differing pattern of geographical location to that of UK owned establishments; and a domestic reaction by UK companies and the government to foreign penetration. Variations within the foreign group were related to geographical origin. The total operations of US affiliates were most significant, but investors from EEC countries displayed characteristics which varied most from those of UK companies. The study concludes by relating changes in industrial structure to the presence of foreign affiliates, and outlining the implications of further foreign involvement