• H2O2-mediated oxidation and nitration enhances DNA binding capacity / DNA repair via up-regulated epidermal wild-type p53 in vitiligo.

      Schallreuter, Karin U.; Thornton, M. Julie; Salem, Mohamed M.A. (University of BradfordDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, Clinical and Experimental Dermatology., 2009-08-21)
      The entire epidermis of patients with vitiligo exhibits accumulation of up to 10-3M concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (Schallreuter, Moore et al. 1999). Over the last decade our group and others have focused on the effect of H2O2-mediated oxidative stress on the function of many proteins and peptides due to oxidation of target amino acid residues in their structure including L-methionine, L-tryptophan, L-cysteine and seleno cysteine (Rokos, Beazley et al. 2002; Gillbro, Marles et al. 2004; Hasse, Kothari et al. 2005; Schallreuter, Chavan et al. 2005; Spencer, Chavan et al. 2005; Chavan, Gillbro et al. 2006; Elwary, Chavan et al. 2006; Gibbons, Wood et al. 2006; Schallreuter, Bahadoran et al. 2008; Shalbaf, Gibbons et al. 2008; Wood, Decker et al. 2009). Moreover, it was shown that patients with vitiligo possess up regulated wild type functioning p53 protein in their skin (Schallreuter, Behrens- Williams et al. 2003). The reason behind this up regulation has remained unclear (Schallreuter, Behrens-Williams et al. 2003). Therefore the aim of this thesis was to get a better understanding of these puzzling data. Along this project different techniques have been used including Western blot, dot blot, immuno precipitation, immuno fluorescence, EMSA and computer modelling. In this thesis we confirmed the previous result on up regulation of p53 in vitiligo and we showed that p90MDM2, the master regulator for p53 protein is not different in patients and healthy controls. Therefore we decided to test for expression of p76MDM2 which mediates the inhibition of p90MDM2-p53 binding. Our results show for the first time the presence and over expression of p76MDM2 protein in vitiligo compared to 3 healthy individuals. This result could provide an explanation, why up regulated p53 is not degraded in this disease. Since epidermal H2O2 accumulation has been extensively documented in vitiligo, we wanted to know whether other ROS could also contribute to the overall oxidative stress in this scenario. Therefore we turned our interest to nitric oxide (NO) and its possible effects on p53 protein. In order to elucidate this role in more detail, the expression levels of epidermal nitric oxide synthesase (iNOS) and the oxidation product of NO and O2 - i.e peroxynitrite (ONOO-) were investigated. Our data revealed over expression of iNOS and nitrated tyrosine residues, the foot print for ONOO-. Moreover, we show for the first time the presence of abundant nitration of p53 protein in vitiligo. In addition using purified p53 from E. coli strain (BL21/DE3) and mutant p53 protein from HT-29 cells (colon cancer cells), we show that nitration takes place in a dose and time dependent manner. On this basis we investigated the effect of both H2O2 and ONOO- on p53-DNA binding capacity employing EMSA, since this is the most acceptable technique to follow the binding between proteins and DNA. Our results revealed that ONOO- abrogated p53-DNA binding capacity at concentrations >300 ¿M, meanwhile oxidation of p53 protein with H2O2 at the same concentrations does not affect binding capacity. Importantly, a much higher p53- DNA binding capacity was observed after exposure to both ONOO- and H2O2. Taken together, p53 is regulated by both ROS (H2O2) and RNS (ONOO-). Next we identified the presence of phosphorylated and acetylated p53 in vitiligo. Phosphorylation of ser 9 and ser 15 residues of the protein are associated with over expressed ATM protein kinase, while acetylation of lys 373, 382 residues correlates with increased PCAF expression. We show that up regulated p53 is associated with over expressed p21 (cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1) and induced PCNA 4 expression. Hence, we can conclude that p53 in patients with vitiligo is up regulated, activated and functional. Finally we show up regulated BCL-2 supporting the long voiced absence of increased apoptosis in vitiligo. Given that patients with vitiligo have no increased risk for solar induced skin cancer and increased photo damage (Calanchini-Postizzi and Frenk 1987; Westerhof and Schallreuter 1997; Schallreuter, Tobin et al. 2002), despite the presence of increased DNA damage as evidenced by increased 8-oxoG levels in the skin and in the plasma, our findings suggest that both p53 and PCNA provide a powerful machinery to mediate DNA repair via hOgg1, APE1 and DNA polymerase ß (Shalbaf 2009). On this basis it is tempting to conclude that DNArepair is the overriding mechanism to combat oxidative stress in this disease.
    • Hadamard transformcoding of television signals. A theoretical investigation of the adaptive coding of Hadamard transformed television signals. The use of computable objective measures for the assessment of local subpicture characteristics in selecting appropriate coders.

      Downing, O.J.; Morsi, Ibrahim Zakaria (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 2010-06-30)
      The problem of determining an objective means for assessing local characteristics of television subpictures in a Hadamard transform multicoder scheme is stated and discussed. Detailed investigations of transform domain coefficient statistical characteristics for different test images have been conducted. Both monochrome and colour signals were used, as well as different transform sizes and shapes. " Directing Indexes " are proposed which, depending on the inter-relationships among transform coefficients and groups of coefficients, direct each subpicture to the appropriate coder. Three indexes in the case of monochrome signals are proposed, each with its own computational procedures and application requirements. Necessary modifications and changes for application of some indexes on colour signals are also discussed. The proposed technique of indexing eliminates the necessity of equal distribution of subpictures among 'activity classes', a major disadvantage encountered in present activity index. Coders to be used with each directing index are devised and tested, subject to an arbitrary bit rate of 2 bits per pixel, with satisfactory performance compared with some published results for other techniques.
    • Health and Poverty: The Issue of Health Inequalities in Ethiopia

      Jalilian, Hossein; Analoui, Farhad; Wussobo, Adane M. (University of BradfordBradford Centre for International Development, School of Social and International Studies, 2014-05-06)
      The objectives of this study are to provide a comprehensive assessment of inequalities in infant and under-five years¿ child survival, access to and utilisations of child health services among different socio-economic groups in Ethiopia; and identify issues for policies and programmes at national and sub-national levels. This thesis examines the effect of parental socioeconomic status, maternal and delivery care services, mothers¿ bio-demographic and background characteristics on the level of differences in infant and under-five years¿ child survival and access to and utilisation of child health services. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were carried out for selected variables in the literature which were consider as the major determinants of infant mortality rate (IMR) and under-five years¿ child mortality rate (U5MR); access to and utilisations of child health services based on data from Ethiopian demographic and health survey (EDHS), covering the years 2000-2005. In the multivariate analysis a logit regression model was used to estimates inequalities in infant and under-five years¿ child survival, and inequalities in access to and utilisation of child health services. In Ethiopia, little was known about inequalities in IMR and U5MR, and inequalities in access to and utilisation of child health services. Besides, there is no systematic analysis of health inequalities and into its determinants using logistic regression. According to the available literature, this is the first comprehensive and systematic analysis of inequality of health in Ethiopia. The findings show that compared to under-five years¿ children of mothers¿ partners¿ with no work, mothers¿ partners¿ in professional, technical and managerial occupations had 13 times more chance of under-five years¿ child survival for 2000 weighted observations. In addition, compared to infants of mothers who were gave birth to one child in last 5 years preceding the survey, infants of mothers who were gave birth to 2 children in last 5 years preceding the survey had 70% less chance of infant survival while infants of mothers who were gave birth to 3 or more children had 89% less chance of infant survival for 2000 weighted observations. Moreover, this study finding also indicates that inequalities increased significantly in the five years period between 2000 and 2005 among mothers with different birth interval. Most of the relations between birth interval and receiving childhood immunisation for vaccine-preventable diseases were statistically significant. Moreover compared to non-educated mothers, mothers who completed secondary and higher education were nearly 10 times more likely to receive DPT3 immunisation for their young children. This study concludes that policy measures that tackle health inequalities will have a positive impact in the implementation of health sector strategy of Ethiopia. Health inequalities studies in Ethiopia and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries should focus on systematic analysis of different socio-economic groups. The finding of this study support investing in the Ethiopia¿s health extension package (HEP) is a necessary but not sufficient condition for addressing rural poor health problem. HEP is successful in increasing primary health care coverage in rural Ethiopia to 89.6% (FMOH, 2009) but unable to reduce Ethiopia¿s higher level of IMR and U5MR. HEP is one of the success stories that address the rural poor health problem and can also be adapted to developing countries of SSA. The finding also shows that the success stories such as health insurance programs like Rwanda (World Bank, 2008a) and Ethiopia (FMOH, 2009/10) will play a key role in achieving country¿s health care financing goal of universal coverage. This can also be replicated in the developing SSA countries.
    • Heat Transfer Characteristics of Natural Convection within an Enclosure Using Liquid Cooling System.

      Hussain, Khalid; Qi, Hong Sheng; Gdhaidh, Farouq A.S. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering and Informatics, 2016-02-26)
      In this investigation, a single phase fluid is used to study the coupling between natural convection heat transfer within an enclosure and forced convection through computer covering case to cool the electronic chip. Two working fluids are used (water and air) within a rectangular enclosure and the air flow through the computer case is created by an exhaust fan installed at the back of the computer case. The optimum enclosure size configuration that keeps a maximum temperature of the heat source at a safe temperature level (85℃) is determined. The cooling system is tested for varying values of applied power in the range of 15−40𝑊. The study is based on both numerical models and experimental observations. The numerical work was developed using the commercial software (ANSYS-Icepak) to simulate the flow and temperature fields for the desktop computer and the cooling system. The numerical simulation has the same physical geometry as those used in the experimental investigations. The experimental work was aimed to gather the details for temperature field and use them in the validation of the numerical prediction. The results showed that, the cavity size variations influence both the heat transfer process and the maximum temperature. Furthermore, the experimental results ii compared favourably with those obtained numerically, where the maximum deviation in terms of the maximum system temperature, is within 3.5%. Moreover, it is seen that using water as the working fluid within the enclosure is capable of keeping the maximum temperature under 77℃ for a heat source of 40𝑊, which is below the recommended electronic chips temperature of not exceeding 85℃. As a result, the noise and vibration level is reduced. In addition, the proposed cooling system saved about 65% of the CPU fan power.
    • Heat transfer in mixing vessels at low Reynolds numbers. An experimental study of temperature profiles heat transfer rates and power requirements for mechanically agitated vessels operating at low Reynolds numbers.

      Edwards, M.F.; Shamlou, Parviz Ayazi (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Chemical Engineering, 2010-08-04)
      The present study investigates experimentally the laminar mixing and heat transfer of a range of helical ribbon and anchor impellers for both Newtonian and inelastic non-Newtonian fluids. The work also correlates the experimental data empirically in the form of dimensionless groups. In order to estimate the relative importance and the effect of all the geometrical parameters on the mixing power and heat transfer, data from the published literature sources will be utilized and combined with the results from this study. Thus, reliable empirical correlations will be obtained which are applicable over the widest range of operating conditions. The study also investigates the ablity of the various impellers to level out temerature distributions. The measurement of these temperature gradients and the impeller power requirements gives a measure of the mixing efficiency of the impeller used.
    • Heat transfer in upward flowing two-phase gas-liquid mixtures. An experimental study of heat transfer in two-phase gas-liquid mixtures flowing upwards in a vertical tube with liquid phase being driven by a pump or air injection.

      Hallam, R.A.; Alahmad, Malik I.N. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Chemical Engineering, 2009-10-06)
      An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the heat transfer in a two-phase two-component mixture flowing upward inside a 1" double pipe heat exchanger. The heat transfer coefficient was measured using either air to lift the liquid (air-lift system) or a mechanical pump. The heat transfer coefficient results have been extensively studied and compared with other workers' results. An attempt was made to correlate the present heat transfer data in dimensionless correlations. Possible factors affecting the two-phase heat transfer coefficient have been studied with special attention being given to the fluid properties, particularly the liquid viscosity. Experiments were also carried out to investigate the effect of solid particles added to a liquid flow on the measured heat transfer coefficient. The present investigation was carried out using air as the gas-phase ranging from 2x 10-5 up to 80 x 10-5 m3/s. Liquids used were water and glycerol solutions with viscosity ranging from 0.75 up to 5.0 C. P. and flowrates between 4x 10-5 and 25 x 10-5 m3/s. Void fraction and pressure drop were also measured during the heat transfer process. Flow pattern in gas-liquid mixture was investigated in a perspex tube of identical dimensions to the heat exchanger tube.
    • Here, there is nobody. An ethnography of older people's end-of-life care in hospital

      Oyebode, Jan R.; Capstick, Andrea; Green, Laura I. (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2017)
      The alleviation of suffering lies at the core of compassionate end-of-life care, yet little is known about the lived experience of suffering. Motivated by a series of reports on poor care of older people in hospital, this study addresses suffering in older people at the end of life in an acute hospital ward in the United Kingdom. Methods were developed from a synthesis of ethnographic fieldwork and phenomenological interpretation. Data were collected using participant observation on an acute care ward for older people in a hospital in Northern England, over 186 hours between June and August 2015. Data included field notes, documents, photographs and informal interviewing. Staff and patient participants were identified using theoretical sampling. Data were analysed using a hermeneutic approach involving a continuous process of analysis, further data collection, posing of problems and questions, and interpretation. This cyclical approach to the data enabled the development of interpretive perspectives which could then be further explored in the field. Findings suggested that care for older people was shaped by competing ideologies of care and organisational regulatory processes. Particularly when there was ambiguity regarding prognosis, there was a tendency for care to default to a ‘rescuing’ acute care model. Through exploring the experiences of individual patients and placing these in the context of cultures of care, I suggest that iatrogenic suffering was a significant concern that often went unrecognised. Patient-centred goals must be more focused upon avoidance of iatrogenic suffering. Recommendations include innovations in clinical education and multiprofessional working.
    • Heterogeneous crystallisation of polyethylene terephthalate. A study of the influence of organic and inorganic additives on the rate of crystallisation of polyethylene terephthalate and the subsequent changes in morphology and mechanical properties.

      Sheldon, R.P.; Ibbotson, C. (University of BradfordSchool of Polymer Science, 2009-11-26)
      The effect of various inorganic and organic additives as possible nucleating agents on the crystallisation behaviour of P. E. T. and the suosequent influence on the morphological and mechanical properties has been examined. Various methods of mixing(: the polymer and additive were investigated and a method involving the screw-Extrusion of the polymer and the additive was ultimately adopted. Crystallisation studies were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry under dynamic and isothermal modes. The results produced under conditions of isothermal crystallisation were analysed by means of a computer. Despite differences between batches of polymer all the additives with the exception of indigo produced a nucleating effect in the polymer as indicated by an increase in the rate of crystallisation compared with that of the base polymer. Two organo-metallic substances (sodium benzoate and sodium stearate) proved to be the most effective in this respect by decreasing the degree of supercooling of the polymer by 20 [degrees]. Morphological studies were carried out on isothermally crystallised samples, after etching and replication using a transmission electron microscope. A nodular structure whose dimensions were sensitive to both the nucleating agent and the temperature of crystallisation was observed. Mechanical testing of samples direct from the D. S. C. was carried out using a compression method. The breaking loads were found to vary with both the type of nucleating agent used and the crystallisation temperature chosen. A separate study involving the exanination of the resulting fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscopy revealed that a, high breaking load was associated with a fine discontinuous structure whereas lower breaking loads were characterised by a more continuous linear appearance. This implies a higher energy of fracture due to the increased surface area of the fracture surface of the former.
    • Heterogeneous Networking for Beyond 3G system in a High-Speed Train Environment. Investigation of handover procedures in a high-speed train environment and adoption of a pattern classification neural-networks approach for handover management

      Sheriff, Ray E.; Chan, Pauline M.L.; Ong, Felicia Li Chin (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2016)
      Based on the targets outlined by the EU Horizon 2020 (H2020) framework, it is expected that heterogeneous networking will play a crucial role in delivering seamless end-to-end ubiquitous Internet access for users. In due course, the current GSM-Railway (GSM-R) will be deemed unsustainable, as the demand for packet-oriented services continues to increase. Therefore, the opportunity to identify a plausible replacement system conducted in this research study is timely and appropriate. In this research study, a hybrid satellite and terrestrial network for enabling ubiquitous Internet access in a high-speed train environment is investigated. The study focuses on the mobility management aspect of the system, primarily related to the handover management. A proposed handover strategy, employing the RACE II MONET and ITU-T Q.65 design methodology, will be addressed. This includes identifying the functional model (FM) which is then mapped to the functional architecture (FUA), based on the Q.1711 IMT-2000 FM. In addition, the signalling protocols, information flows and message format based on the adopted design methodology will also be specified. The approach is then simulated in OPNET and the findings are then presented and discussed. The opportunity of exploring the prospect of employing neural networks (NN) for handover is also undertaken. This study focuses specifically on the use of pattern classification neural networks to aid in the handover process, which is then simulated in MATLAB. The simulation outcomes demonstrated the effectiveness and appropriateness of the NN algorithm and the competence of the algorithm in facilitating the handover process.
    • Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water over nanoscale powdered titanium dioxide. The photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds in water (Reactive Orange 16, Triclocarbon, Clopyralid and Estrogens (estrone, 17ß-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol)) was studied; the reaction kinetics and the effect of the operating parameters on the performance of the system were determined; a comparison with other advanced oxidation processes (O3, H2O2, UV) was also made.

      Tizaoui, Chedly; Benkreira, Hadj; Mezughi, Khaled M. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2011-04-08)
      Organic contaminants from industrial and/or domestic effluents may be harmful to humans directly or indirectly by degrading the quality of the aquatic environment. Consequently these contaminants must be reduced to levels that are not harmful to humans and the environment before disposal. Chemical, physical and biological methods exist for the removal of these pollutants from effluents. Among the available chemical methods, heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation has been found particularly effective in removing a large number of persistent organics in water. In this study, photocatalytic degradation was explored for the removal of reactive azo-dye (textile dye), triclocarban (disinfectant), clopyralid (herbicide) and three endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (estrone, 17ß-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) from synthetic effluents. The major factors affecting the photocatalytic processes including the initial concentration of the target compounds, the amount of catalyst, the light intensity, the type of catalyst, the electron acceptor, the irradiation time and the pH were studied. Other oxidation techniques including (O3, H2O2, UV) were also studied. Generally UV light is used in combination with titanium dioxide, as photocatalyst, to generate photoinduced charge separation leading to the creation of electron-hole pairs. The holes act as electron acceptors hence the oxidation of organics occur at these sites. These holes can also lead to the formation of hydroxyl radicals which are also effective oxidants capable of degrading the organics. The results obtained in this study indicated that photolysis (i.e. UV only) was found to have no effect on the degradation of reactive azo-dye (RO16). However, complete photocatalytic degradation of 20 mg/L (3.24×10-2 mM) RO16 was achieved in 20 minutes in the presence of 1g/L TiO2 Degussa P25 at pH 5.5. Comparison between various types of catalysts (i.e. Degussa P25, VP Aeroperl, Hombifine N) gave varied results but Degussa P25 was the most effective photocatalyst hence it was selected for this study. For RO16 the optimum catalyst concentration was 0.5 g/L TiO2 with initial concentration of 20 mg/L RO16. It was found that the disappearance of RO16 satisfactorily followed the pseudo first-order kinetics according to Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model. The rate constant was k= 0.0928 mol/min. Photodegradation of TCC was studied in 70%v acetonitrile: 30%v water solutions. UV light degraded TCC effectively and the reaction rates increased with decreasing initial concentration of TCC. UV/TiO2 gave unsatisfactory degradation of triclocarban (TCC) since only 36% were removed in 60 minutes with initial concentration of TCC 20 mg/L. The degradation of clopyralid and the EDCs was studied using three oxidation systems UV/TiO2, UV/H2O2 and O3. Complete degradation of clopyralid (3,6-DCP) was achieved with UV/TiO2 in about 90 minutes at an optimum catalyst concentration of 1g/L. Zero-order kinetics was found to describe the first stage of the photocatalytic reaction in the concentration range 0.078-0.521 mM. At pH 5 the rate constant was 2.09×10-6-4.32×10-7 M.s-1.Complete degradation of all the three EDCs was achieved with UV/H2O2 in 60 minutes at catalyst concentration of (2.94×10-2 M). On the other hand complete degradation of the EDCs was achieved in just 2 minutes with ozonation. For high concentration EDCs, TiO2/UV gave low efficiency of degradation as compared with ozone and H2O2/UV. First-order kinetics was found to describe the photocatalytic reaction of the EDCs.
    • A Heuristic Featured Based Quantification Framework for Efficient Malware Detection. Measuring the Malicious intent of a file using anomaly probabilistic scoring and evidence combinational theory with fuzzy hashing for malware detection in Portable Executable files

      Awan, Irfan U.; Disso, Jules P.; Cullen, Andrea J.; Namanya, Anitta P. (University of BradfordSchool of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2016)
      Malware is still one of the most prominent vectors through which computer networks and systems are compromised. A compromised computer system or network provides data and or processing resources to the world of cybercrime. With cybercrime projected to cost the world $6 trillion by 2021, malware is expected to continue being a growing challenge. Statistics around malware growth over the last decade support this theory as malware numbers enjoy almost an exponential increase over the period. Recent reports on the complexity of the malware show that the fight against malware as a means of building more resilient cyberspace is an evolving challenge. Compounding the problem is the lack of cyber security expertise to handle the expected rise in incidents. This thesis proposes advancing automation of the malware static analysis and detection to improve the decision-making confidence levels of a standard computer user in regards to a file’s malicious status. Therefore, this work introduces a framework that relies on two novel approaches to score the malicious intent of a file. The first approach attaches a probabilistic score to heuristic anomalies to calculate an overall file malicious score while the second approach uses fuzzy hashes and evidence combination theory for more efficient malware detection. The approaches’ resultant quantifiable scores measure the malicious intent of the file. The designed schemes were validated using a dataset of “clean” and “malicious” files. The results obtained show that the framework achieves true positive – false positive detection rate “trade-offs” for efficient malware detection.
    • High and Low Involvement: An Exploration of Ethical Product Decisions

      Wright, Gillian H.; Foti, Lianne K.
      Purpose Ethical elaboration is an aspect of product involvement and this research examines the relationship between involvement and ethical consumption providing a more holistic understanding of ethical decision-­making. This paper identifies antecedents of both low and high involvement ethical product decision-­making at farmers’ markets, and with sustainable and energy efficient features in the housing market, respectively. Design/methodology/approach These aims are achieved through semi-­structured and in-­depth interviews with consumers and sellers of ethical products across low and high involvement domains. Findings The empirical investigation reveals new insights into the constructs considered when purchasing high involvement ethical products. Barriers are discussed and findings examine the relationships between trust, information, ethical motivation and signalling. Research implications A research process framework for the study of ethical decision-­making is presented, demonstrating that constructs are approached differently between involvement levels. A conceptual model providing steps for transferring knowledge gained from the research to practice is also developed. Practical implications This research aids in the dispersion of information among stakeholders so that sustainability and energy efficiency can be part of the standard real estate conversation. Social implications Sustainability and energy efficiency (SEE) housing is seen as a niche market and this research will help alter the behaviour of the stakeholders in order to incentivise consumers to change their purchase patterns to include SEE features. Originality/value Most of the work on ethical consumption deals with low-­involvement products. This study addresses high-­involvement ethical consumption within the housing market through a qualitative approach.
    • High speed very thin films with reverse roll coatings. An experimental investigation of reverse roll coating of fluids using rigid and deformable rolls at high speeds.

      Benkreira, Hadj; Patel, Rajnikant; Shibata, Yusuke (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-12-05)
      The objective of a coating operation is to transfer a defect free liquid film onto a continuous substrate in order to meet the requirements of the final products. Mainly two concerns govern the process. The first concern is the economics of the process and the second concern is the quality of the coated film. The economics of the process are dictated by the speed of coating and the film thickness. Clearly, higher speeds mean better productivity hence less cost of operation and thinner films are desirable because less material is being used. Quality is governed by film uniformity and integrity, indicating that the film will perform as designed. Film defects such as streaks or tiny air bubbles are indication that the film properties are not uniform rendering it unacceptable to customers. One of the most versatile coating systems to achieve thin films at high speeds is reverse roll coating which has been used for a long time all over the world. At low speed, typically 1m/s, this coating operation is inherently stable and with small gaps of order 100 microns can ii lead to film thickness of order 30-50 microns. Much research, theoretical and experimental, has been devoted to this coating flow but only at low speeds and for large gaps (>100 microns). There are no comprehensive data how very thin films, 20 microns and less (particularly lower limits in the region of 5 microns) can be achieved at high speeds, of 2 or more metres per second. This study is concerned precisely with this aim, that of investigating the effect of large speeds and small roller gaps (rollers nearly touching or in elastohydrodynamic contact) to achieve the very thin films desired by modern applications (electronics, medical and others). In order to achieve this aim, a rig was designed and built to enable to understand the effect of various coating conditions and liquid properties on the metered film thickness and coating instability. To achieve thin films at high speeds, small roll gap and low viscosity are needed, however flow instabilities will develop under these conditions. To achieve stable coating window at high speeds high surface tension is needed. It was found that the roll gap and the viscosity have complicated effect on the coating window. In the case of low viscosity liquid (7mPa.s), small roll gaps are needed, whereas in the case of high viscosity liquid (more than 30mPa.s), large gaps are needed. It was found that Weber number is better describer for ribbing instability in rigid reverse roll coating unlike in rigid forward roll coating in which capillary number is the one. In addition the potential of reverse deformable roll coating (rolls in elastohydrodynamic contact) was investigated in order to achieve much thinner films at higher speeds. As a result of the investigation of reverse deformable roll coating, it was found that there is a possibility to get much thinner stable films at much higher speeds compared to reverse rigid roll coating. The liquid transfer from an applicator roller to a PET film was investigated in this study. It was found that air stagnation at downstream meniscus and air entrainment at upstream meniscus depend on the liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension and coating conditions such as web tension and wrap angle of web. As a result, wet film instability also depends on liquid properties and coating conditions. It was found that air stagnation causes streaks on the wet film and air entrainment caused bubbles on the wet film. To get a stable wet film, it was found that suitable viscosity and high surface tension were needed.
    • History’s Wound: Collective Trauma and the Israel/Palestine conflict

      Whitman, Jim R.; Hughes, Caroline; Shahi, Afshin; Thorsten, Marie; Ottman, Esta T.
      In considering the Israel-Palestine conflict, focus has remained on conventional major issues: borders, settlements, Jerusalem, Palestinian refugee rights and water. Should there be one binational state, or two states for two peoples? Yet this is a conflict that is sustained by factors more profound than the dispute over limited resources or competing nationalisms. The parties’ narratives, continually rehearsed, speak of a cataclysmic event or chain of events, a collective trauma, which has created such deep suffering and disruption that the rehearsers remain ‘frozen’ amid the overarching context of political violence. This study offers a critical analysis of the concept of collective trauma together with the role of commemorative practices, including core contemporary canonical days of memory, and asks to what extent they may hinder progress in the resolution of an intractable conflict, such as the Israel/Palestine conflict. Without addressing the powerful traumatic current that underpins a chronic conflict, no amount of top-down formal peace-making is likely to be sustainable.
    • Holding on: gender relations, food security and women’s options and strategies for maintaining access to land in the Acholi region of Uganda

      Macaulay, Fiona; Jacobs, Susie; Thorley, Lisa (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2015)
      This research is based on fieldwork that was carried out in the post-conflict villages of Adunu and Kom in the Acholi region of northern Uganda. It argues that a woman’s maintained access to customary land within these villages is determined not only by her sex and by provisions within Acholi customary law, but also by her marital and parental status as framed by patriarchal ideologies and power relations. It shows that if women wish to retain and hold on to land that is socially (and sometimes, legally) meant to be ‘theirs’, they must be prepared constantly to bargain and negotiate with either their husband, their husband’s lineage or their own natal clan. They must also conform to gendered norms concerning female behaviour, especially those that pertain to their sexuality and reproductive abilities. It is by adopting such strategies and, often, by making concessions, that they will be able to, in most cases, maintain access to land, particularly if land is in abundance. The thesis also shows that women’s food security is contingent on the gendered relations that they have and maintain with male family members and also on factors that are external, be these climate change or their ability to farm effectively. By looking at the relevance of gender relations in land access and food security, through a gender awareness lens and a feminist ethnography, this thesis provides a nuanced understanding of how women maintain access to customary land and how they can achieve food security, albeit within a male dominated system.
    • A holistic approach to injection moulding optimisation for product quality and cost through the characterisation of reprocessed polymeric materials and process monitoring. Experimental evaluations and statistical analysis of multiple reprocessing of unfilled and short glass fibre filled polypropylene materials. An optimised methodology to realise minimum product cost at an acceptable product quality.

      Mulvaney-Johnson, Leigh; Campean, I. Felician; Elsheikhi, Salah A. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2012-04-16)
      The plastics industry is one of the fastest growing major industries in the world. There is an increase in the amount of plastic used for all types of products due to its light weight and ability to reprocess. For this reason, the reprocessing of thermoplastics and the usability of reprocessed materials are gaining significance, and it is important to produce and consume plastic materials in an environmentally friendly way. In addition, rising raw material cost linked to the increased oil prices encouraged for reusing of the plastic materials. The aim of this research was to study and optimize the injection moulding process parameters to achieve a trade-off between the product cost and product quality, measured through mechanical properties and geometry, based on using regrind ratios. The work was underpinned by a comprehensive study of multiple reprocessing effects in order to evaluate the effect of process parameters, material behaviour, reprocessing effects and possible links between the processing parameters and key properties. Experimental investigations were carried out, in particular, focused on the melt preparation phase to identify key process parameters and settings. Multiple reprocessing stages were carried out; using two types of PP material: unfilled and short glass filled. A series of tests were used to examine product quality (mass, colour and shrinkage) and physical properties (density, crystallinity, thermal stability, fibre length, molecular weight, in-line and off-line viscosity, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, elongation (%) and flexural strength). This investigation showed that the mouldability of the filled and unfilled PP materials, through the successive reprocessing stages (using 100 % regrind), was observed to be relatively consistent. Given the link between the processing parameters and key product and material properties, it is possible to manufacture products with minimal loss to part quality and mechanical properties. The final phase of the work focused on process optimisation study for short glass fibre filled PP material and the identified key process parameters (melt temperature, screw rotational speed, holding pressure, holding time and injection rate). A response surface experiment was planned and carried out for three reprocessing stages (0 %, 25 % and 50 % regrind). The fitted response surface models were utilised to carry out the trade-off analysis between the operating cost (material cost, energy cost and labour cost) and product quality (dimensions and tensile strength) Based on the optimal moulding conditions, the operating cost was reduced (from stage I as a reference), by 24% and 30 % for stage II and stage III respectively. A small, perhaps undetectable, change in product dimensions was noted. In addition, a small reduction in tensile strength was noted (from stage I as a reference), by 0.4% and 0.1 % for stage II and stage III respectively. The same data was applied in other countries (Australia, USA, Brazil, Libya and China) to manufacture the same product; and it was observed that the cost was reduced with increasing of regrind ratio. But the significant reduction of the cost, essentially, depended on those countries which have low wage rates (e.g. Brazil, Libya and China). For example, the cost of moulded product manufactured in China is £ 0.025 (using 50% of regrind), while the cost of the same product produced in Australia is £ 0.12, hence giving a total saving of 79 % and making it a valuable issue to be considered in industry.
    • A home physiotherapy service for stroke patients in Malta: constraints and recommendations. The process of setting up a home physiotherapy service for hospitalised stroke patients within the public health system in Malta - new knowledge contributing to a strategy document.

      Hepworth, Deborah; Lungaro-Mifsud, Stephen (University of BradfordSchool of Health Studies, 2010-06-08)
      Home physiotherapy is a valid service option for the patient who was recently discharged from hospital after sustaining a stroke, as it enhances functional independence in friendly and familiar surroundings, as opposed to an outpatient clinic (Bader 2008). The aim of this study was to investigate the system responses to the planning and implementation of a home physiotherapy service as an innovation within the Maltese Public Health Service, uncovering barriers or constraints that influenced the introduction and development of state-run home physiotherapy in Malta. Method A qualitative approach was used for this research. A case study design was selected because it possessed contextual, descriptive and heuristic characteristics. Study participants planned and implemented the service using the available resources. Policy makers, physiotherapists, stroke patients and caregivers contributed to the study through their responses to, and experiences of, this service innovation. It was both an exploration and an opportunity to learn about service innovation from a Maltese perspective. A group of stakeholders were interviewed during the planning stage (Phase 1) of the home physiotherapy service. The main purpose of these interviews was to inform the design of the service. Another group of participants was interviewed in the active service stage (Phase 2) - at the beginning and at the end. The purpose here was to gather data from their direct experiences with home physiotherapy. Documents relevant to home rehabilitation were accessed and analysed hermeneutically. These included newspaper media, as it was considered a sensitive instrument to understand social context (Catalán Matamoros 2007; Davis 1990). Findings and discussion Data analysis identified categories of findings such as ¿barriers to the implementation of a new service¿, ¿attitudes to home physiotherapy¿ and ¿fragmented rehabilitation service¿. The category components were discussed and linked to the hermeneutical analysis of documents, offering a deeper understanding of the categories within the local context, and revealing a reinforcement of establishment-based health care. Conclusion The findings of this study provided an insight into the constraints that would appear if home physiotherapy, indeed home rehabilitation, were introduced by the Maltese Public Health Service. This research had an impact on the state physiotherapy services. Recommendations to help mitigate the constraints in an overarching manner were offered at the end of the thesis. To the international reader with experience in organised home physiotherapy, this study gives a glimpse into how issues that would seem trivial and obvious at first glance become significant challenges¿.challenges that the uninitiated would need to overcome.
    • How did governance in Acholi dovetail with violence?

      Pankhurst, Donna T.; Francis, David J.; Oloya, John J. (University of BradfordSchool of Social and International Studies, 2015)
      This thesis applies interdisciplinary approaches to explore interactions between two forms of community governance in Acholiland from 1898 to 2010, locating itself within Peace Studies. One form, kaka, was “traditional”, featuring varied forms of “facultative mutualisms” among two or more gangi agnates – with one gang as dominant in the realm. Gangi were kinship-based polities. Like kaka, gangi manifested autopoietic attributes and strong internal “fiduciary cultures”. Then in the 1900s, kaka as governing systems were reshuffled under colonialism and a tribal unit, the Acholi Local Government was created and was subordinated to the Uganda state. Unlike kaka, Acholi Local Government was hierarchal and has consistently been redesigned by various postcolonial governments in their attempts to renegotiate, reshape and control the Acholi people. The study advances a concept of community governance as “socialpolitical” and moral, and counters that kaka was about brotherhoods - not rulersubject relationships. It further distinguishes what was “traditional” from “customary” systems, and demonstrates how colonialism in Acholiland, and a crisis of legitimacy manifested in a trifurcation of authorities, with: i) the despotic civil service - the “customary system”, fusing modernity and the African tradition, ii) a reshuffled kaka system as traditional, and, iii) the cross-modern, manifested as kinematic lugwok paco, linking ethno-governance with the nascent national and global arenas. The study concludes that both colonialism and “coloniality” have reshuffled the mores of kaka along an African neo-patrimonial legitimacy. Conversely, Acholiland is a “limited statehood” – manifesting a higher order of societal entropy - where the “rule by law and customs” dovetail with violence and poverty, demonstrating a genre of exceptionalism.
    • How the New Labour Government Third Way policies (1998-2010) and the delivery of the New Deal for Communities (NDC) regeneration programme impacted on participation in health care in an area-based initiative. A longitudinal study using action-learning research methodology in a New Deal for Communities Area Based Initiative

      Chesters, Graeme S.; Greenham, Felicity J. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies and International Development, 2018)
      The research examines New Labour’s Third Way policies and the impact New Deal for Communities (NDC) regeneration programme had on participation in health care. This longitudinal study (1998-2007) explores participatory joint working, welfare state, social capacity, health inequalities, citizen involvement and community capacity. It captures the experiences of local community and front-line workers whilst delivering the Health Focus Group (HFG) in the NDC programme. Using action learning reflection techniques, the study analyses a purposeful sample of 15 from the local community, front-line workers, and strategic respondents involved in the NDC health programme. The research demonstrated the NDC did increase participation, joint working and involvement of local actors 1998–2003. The importance of communication, leadership and relationships was recognised as an important catalyst for developing community governance models. The new action learning spaces initiated, designed and delivered 19 new models of joint local clinical, community and complementary health and well-being projects. In 2001, New Labour introduced public private finance initiatives with the Primary Care Trust (PCT) which conflicted with the local actors’ involvement in the participatory joint decision-making. The reconfiguration of health and social care services and the new public health models introduced complex governance and monitoring models, further distancing the local actors from the process. Strategic staff changes in key governance positions also adversely affected the communication and trust established with local actors. The research concluded operational, tactical, and strategic alignment is necessary to maximise joint participation in decision-making.