• Facial analysis and recognition inside digital images and videos.

      Jiang, Jianmin; Ipson, Stanley S.; Qing, Chunmei (University of BradfordDepartment of Electronic Imaging and Media Communications, 2010-10-21)
    • Factors affecting neuropsychological testing in the elderly and the use of a newly developed virtual reality test. Implications for the accurate and early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

      Lesk, Valerie E.; Kelly, Nancy; Walters, Elizabeth R. (University of BradfordDivision of Psychology, School of Social and International Studies, 2015-07-15)
      Neuropsychological testing is one method used in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive disorders. However, the testing process may be affected by subtle external factors which if not controlled for may have the ability to affect the scores obtained. The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of some of these external factors, namely caffeine, non-oily fish consumption and time of day. A secondary aim was to evaluate the use of a novel virtual assessment as a possible tool for the early detection of AD. Healthy elderly participants over the age of sixty with no existing cognitive impairment or neurological condition were recruited to take part. For each external factor investigated participants were required to undertake a cognitive assessment. The results demonstrated that subtle external factors present during a typical testing session have the ability to significantly affect the scores obtained. Scores on one part of the virtual test correlated with existing tests used for the early detection of cognitive impairment and were significantly lower in participants classified as mildly impaired. With further modification this test has the potential to be used as an early detection tool. The results have implications for the interpretation of neuropsychological test scores which may be considered when classifying participants, determining treatment interventions, selecting participants for research and making a diagnosis. These findings have important considerations for psychological and cognitive research that investigates human brain function.
    • Factors affecting the adoption of internet banking in the Kingdom of Bahrain

      Collins, Andrea; Tassabehji, Rana; Al Hajaar, Saeed; Janahi, Yusuf M.A.M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2016)
      The emergence of the Internet in business as a marketing tool and as a communication medium is one of the existing challenges for the banking industry. Because of this evolution, the banking industry has adopted Internet banking both for financial transactions and for the provision of information about products and services. Based on the ideas mentioned, this study aimed to examine the factors which may affect the intention to use Internet banking in the Kingdom of Bahrain with the following research objectives to be achieved: first, to identify the factors which affect the intention to use and adopt Internet banking in the Kingdom of Bahrain; second, to develop a model based on the identified factors that affect the intention to use Internet banking in the Kingdom of Bahrain; and third, to test the reliability and validity of the proposed model and find its implications on the intention to use and adopt Internet banking. In this study, five variables were initially chosen, namely, perceived privacy protection, perceived security protection, perceived trust, perceived information quality and perceived risks/benefits that may affect the intention to use Internet banking. Besides the five variables, two more variables were included: cultural dimension and biometric technology to measure a significant relationship with any of the five variables that might affect the intention of bank customers to use Internet banking in Bahrain. As a quantitative method of research, the study focused on assessing the co-variation among naturally occurring variables with the goal of identifying predictive relationships by using correlations or more sophisticated statistical techniques. In analysing the data, the descriptive statistics were used. In addition, construct reliability and discriminant validity tests were conducted and structural equation modelling were used to test the research model and verify the hypotheses. The cultural context has rarely been commented on in previous research, but as a result of taking this factor into account in addition to the more technical issues, a number of practical implications became evident for banking in Bahrain that may have applicability elsewhere in the Arab world. These include both a focus on relationship management as well as the need for additional levels of security through biometric fingerprinting to be implemented by banks wishing to increase the adoption of Internet banking amongst existing customers. These strategies also have potential to attract new market segments.
    • Fairness, trust and motivation in Profit Sharing Systems within German law firms. A qualitative analysis of law firm partner needs in a peer-to-peer context

      Lee, Hugh; Kapsis, Llias; Wiegmann, Thomas (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law & Social Sciences, 2019)
      In professional partnerships, partners have to agree how to split their income between each other. Such a profit sharing system (PSS) must be perceived as being fair and motivating to ensure the enduring success of the partnership. Surprisingly, quite different systems are in use today in otherwise comparable firms. The understanding of a “fair share” and how to motivate best varies con-siderably. Existing literature on professional service firms rarely discusses in which circumstances the different PSS types are adequate; non-economic per-spectives are scarce. Using semi-structured interviews with senior partners from large German law firms, this study evaluates their understanding of trust, fairness and motivation, and how that links to their respective PSS’s. It adds the otherwise missing peer-to-peer perspective to existing organisational research on fairness, trust and motivation. The findings include the presence of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation through money, but also through peer pressure. Different fairness ideals clearly link to PSS types. Mutual trust, based on knowing each other, is key in all but one PSS type. An important, but yet overlooked differentiator between PSS’s is whether profit distribution decisions are made based on algorithms or on human (committee) decisions. A new framework is developed that links the beliefs and values of the partners with the specific characteristics of the PSS, which are systematically assessed for the first time. This framework offers partners from law firms and potentially other professional service firms a methodical approach to identify and discuss their needs and to identify the most appropriate PSS for their specific situation.
    • Faith, gender and peacebuilding: The roles of women of faith in peacebuilding in the Conflict between the Gusii and Maasai of south-western Kenya.

      Macaulay, Fiona; Ogega, Jacqueline Christine (University of BradfordSchool of Social and International Studies, 2015-06-22)
      This thesis explores the roles of women of faith in peacebuilding in the conflict between the Gusii and Maasai of South-western Kenya. While religion has at times legitimated women’s exclusion and predominantly created male religious elite figures in peacebuilding, I demonstrate how women of faith deploy religious resources for peace. Acting within complex unequal gendered socio-cultural conditions and positions, the women of faith deploy religious faith as an identity, motivation, and legitimating moral authority and voice in peacebuilding. Gendered barriers hinder them from finding status and a place in formal peacebuilding mechanisms alongside males, but still the women of faith struggle and develop an attitude and disposition of moral influence, and faith power that facilitates them to act as agents in peacebuilding. The women of faith deploy religious resources in mourning and burial rituals of healing and reconciliation, in everyday spiritual practices of sharing lives, and through services that provide security and protection especially for children, the elderly, the injured and the infirm. Religion enables women to establish protective infrastructure through women of faith networks and organizations that provide services to the community, mobilize human capital, and conduct outreach and community engagement. I show that even as the women of faith deploy these religious resources for peacebuilding, they recognize the gendered barriers they are faced with and the public peacebuilding mechanisms that they are excluded from. Deployment of religious resources for peacebuilding intersects with gender identities and relations, and in some instances religious faith transcends established gender norms and gendered barriers or even removes them.
    • The far right in the UK: The BNP in comparative perspective. Examining the development of the British Nation Party within the context of UK and continental far right politics

      Espindola, Roberto; Baimbridge, Mark J.; Anderson, Richard P. (University of BradfordDepartment of Development and Economic Studies, 2012-06-22)
      This thesis examines through the means of a comparative perspective, factors which have allowed the British National Party to enjoy recent electoral success at the local level under the leadership of party chairman Nick Griffin. Such electoral successes have arisen despite the seemingly relative obscurity of the party at the turn of the century. A number of different aspects are examined in order to achieve this aim. The history of the far right in the UK is examined to establish whether the BNP have changed their stance in comparison to previous far right movements. The BNP are also investigated comparatively with other West European parties who have enjoyed national success, as a means of discovering whether the party are similar to their far right neighbours and why they have not enjoyed similar national success. The press coverage of the BNP is examined at a local and national level, using content analysis and the LexisNexis database. The thesis looks at the role played by the BNP in local elections and the decline of participation in political activity, to establish if there is a link between these two factors. Finally a case study is taken of Calderdale in West Yorkshire, to establish directly if any of the above factors can be directly applied to BNP electoral success in this district. The research discovers that there are opportunities for the BNP to establish a connection with the electorate in local politics which are not necessarily available at times of general election.
    • Fascism and fascists in Britain in the 1930s: A case study of Fascism in the North of England in a period of economic and political change.

      Not named; Rawnsley, Stuart J. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Social Sciences, 2009-10-02)
      The thesis is comprised of four parts. The first, consisting of two chapters, challenges some generally accepted views about the 1930's as a whole and emphasises the change in political consciousness that occurred in the minds of ordinary people. The ideology of the B. U. F. is analysed in the context of the decade. The second part, consisting of five chapters, provides a detailed history of the B. U. F. in the North of England from the days of its precursor, the New Party, to the detention of the leading B. U. F. members in 1940- Much of the history of the movement is concerned with Manchester though attention is also paid to other areas in the North of England. The 1938 Manchester municipal elections also receive attention, because of the campaigns waged by the B. U. F. candidates. This is the first major regional study of the B. U. F. The third part deals with the ordinary membership of the B. U. F. in the North of England. The two chapters in this section assess previous judgements regarding B. U. P. membership and make use of interviews and unpublished manuscripts to provide the most detailed analysis of the membership of a British Pascist party. The final part of the thesis consistsq firstlyq of a detailed account of the reaction of the Jewish community, both nationally and in-thrighesterg to the anti-Semitism of the B. U. P., and, secondly, the attitude of the police, judiciary, local authorities and the government to the rise of the British Union of Fascists.
    • The fate of neonate calves. A discussion of the bovine infant health implications of dairying in antiquity, using archaeozoological studies of six Orcadian contexts.

      Mainland, Ingrid L.; Davis, Geoffrey W. (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2011-06-29)
      A methodology for ageing foetal and neonatal cattle is developed, involving radiographic examination of infant mandibles for early developmental stages in molariform teeth; tooth-wear methodologies are imprecise at this stage before wear commences. Known-age modern bovine foetal and neonate material are collected as a control assemblage for method development (n=73); six Neolithic to Norse era assemblages from Orkney are examined using the modified technique together with standard tooth-wear analysis and other methodologies. Foetal and died-at-birth material is diagnosed at most sites using the new technique, together with a range of other peri-natal age-groups. Ageing at this early stage is highly relevant in the diagnosis of milking as a palaeoeconomy: the accepted view is that unwanted (male) calves were slaughtered to maximise milk for human consumption, hence a surfeit of neonate calf remains, as at the study sites. The diagnosis of foetal and died-at-birth material challenges this view, suggesting that attritional causes may have contributed to deaths at this stage. Although milking was probably carried out at most of the study sites, this may have been combined with slaughter of cattle for meat in a pragmatic exploitation strategy. Literary research shows possible attritional causes of abortion and early death in calves, in particular dietary insufficiency in pregnant cows, microbial infections, and also inadequate colostrum uptake. Additionally, research is used to consider the challenges to health that early milking might have posed, to the calf as mentioned, but also to the cow, where three main health issues are highlighted: infertility, mastitis and lameness.
    • Fatty acid and lipid profiles in models of neuroinflammation and mood disorders. Application of high field NMR, gas chromotography and liquid chromotography-tandem mass spectrometry to investigate the effects of atorvaststin in brain and liver lipids and explore brain lipid changes in the FSL model of depression.

      Nicolaou, Anna; Anyakoha, Ngozi G. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2010-06-08)
      Lipids are important for the structural and physiological functions of neuronal cell membranes. Alterations in their lipid composition may result in membrane dysfunction and subsequent neuronal deficits that characterise various disorders. This study focused on profiling lipids of aged and LPS-treated rat brain and liver tissue with a view to explore the effect of atorvastatin in neuroinflammation, and examining lipid changes in different areas of rat brain of the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic model of depression. Lipids and other analytes extracted from tissue samples were analysed with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/ESI-MS/MS). Changes in the lipid profiles suggested that brain and liver responded differently to ageing and LPS-induced neuroinflammation. In the aged animals, n-3 PUFA were reduced in the brain but were increased in the liver. However, following treatment with LPS, these effects were not observed. Nevertheless, in both models, brain concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids was increased while the liver was able to maintain its monounsaturated fatty acid concentration. Atorvastatin reversed the reduction in n-3 PUFA in the aged brain without reducing brain and liver concentration of cholesterol. These findings further highlight alterations in lipid metabolism in agerelated neuroinflammation and show that the anti-inflammatory actions of atorvastatin may include a modulation of fatty acid metabolism. When studying the FSL model, there were differences in the lipid profile of different brain areas of FSL rats compared to Sprague-Dawley controls. In all brain areas, arachidonic acid was increased in the FSL rats. Docosahexaenoic acid and ether lipids were reduced, while cholesterol and sphingolipids were increased in the hypothalamus of the FSL rats. Furthermore, total diacylglycerophospholipids were reduced in the prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus of the FSL rats. These results show differences in the lipid metabolism of the FSL rat brain and may be suggestive of changes occurring in the brain tissue in depression.
    • Federalism & post-conflict statebuilding: The case of Somalia

      aa, aa; Chevreau, Oliver M.
      The use of federalism as an integral component in post-conflict statebuilding processes is becoming increasingly common (e.g. Iraq, Yemen & Sri Lanka). The current academic literature, however, is divided between those that argue that federalism in such fragile environments will increase the likelihood of secession and ‘balkanisation’ and that those that argue that only federalism can provide the periphery with constitutionally protected rights against the centre. However, currently there is little empirical evidence to support either view. This research seeks to contribute to this gap by assessing whether the recent introduction of federalism in Somalia since 2013 has led to the delivery of tangible governance and peacebuilding outcomes. This thesis specifically focuses on the federalism process in Jubaland, a state which formed in 2013. Data was gathered across the region using a statistically significant perception survey and was supplemented by Key Informant Interviews. The surveys were designed to assess public opinion towards federalism and understand how its introduction was perceived to have impacted local governance and conflict dynamics. This analysis was further extended to assess the impact of federalism in other federal member states including Puntland, Galmadug and Southwest based on a review of available secondary literature. An analytical framework assessed the strength of Federal Government-Federal Member State, intra-state and inter-state relations and the extent to which a particular state had undertook tangible governance reforms. The key findings of the research indicate that the population in Jubaland is strongly supportive of federalism in principle and the manner in which it has been implemented. Federalism was seen by the majority of the population as a way of maintaining Somali unity whilst protecting local interests and meeting ocal needs. The approach of the Jubaland authorities to adopt a consociational approach to governance led to the establishment of a sustainable political settlement and the inclusion of minority groups for the first time. However, these successes have not been experienced more widely across Somalia. Other federal member states have experienced poor relations with the federal government. Internally, some states also have weak and violent relations with groups who are competing for influence and poor external relationships with other federal member states. In general, there is a low commitment to governance reform at federal-state level. These findings underpin the final conclusion that whilst federalism in Somalia has enabled improved governance and peacebuilding outcomes in Jubaland, it is the manner of how federal governance has been implemented in other federal states that explains the disparity in results across the country as a whole. More widely, this research suggests that federalism in post-conflict contexts is neither a panacea for peace and stability, or in of itself, a catalyst for inevitable fragmentation.
    • Federalism and Conflict Management in Ethiopia. Case Study of Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State.

      Francis, David J.; Gebremichael, Mesfin (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2012-02-13)
      In 1994 Ethiopia introduced a federal system of government as a national level approach to intra-state conflict management. Homogenisation of cultures and languages by the earlier regimes led to the emergence of ethno-national movements and civil wars that culminated in the collapse of the unitary state in 1991. For this reason, the federal system that recognises ethnic groups¿ rights is the first step in transforming the structural causes of civil wars in Ethiopia. Against this background this research examines whether the federal arrangement has created an enabling environment in managing conflicts in the country. To understand this problematic, the thesis conceptualises and analyses federalism and conflict management using a qualitative research design based on in-depth interviewing and content-based thematic analysis ¿ taking the case study of the Benishangul-Gumuz regional state. The findings of the study demonstrate that different factors hinder the federal process. First, the constitutional focus on ethnic groups¿ rights has led, in practice, to lessened attention to citizenship and minority rights protection in the regional states. Second, the federal process encourages ethnic-based elite groups to compete in controlling regional and local state powers and resources. This has greatly contributed to the emergence of ethnic-based violent conflicts, hostile intergovernmental relationships and lack of law and order along the common borders of the regional states. Third, the centralised policy and decision making process of the ruling party has hindered genuine democratic participation of citizens and self-determination of the ethnic groups. This undermines the capacity of the regional states and makes the federal structure vulnerable to the dynamics of political change. The conflicts in Benishangul-Gumuz emanate from these causes, but lack of territorial land use rights of the indigenous people and lack of proportional political representation of the non-indigenous people are the principal manifestations. The research concludes by identifying the issues that determine the sustainability of the federal structure. Some of them include: making constitutional amendments which consider citizenship rights and minority rights protection; enhancing the democratic participation of citizens by developing the capacities of the regional states and correcting the organisational weakness of the multi-national political parties; encouraging co-operative intergovernmental relationships, and maintaining the territorial land use rights of the Benishangul-Gumuz indigenous people.
    • Fibre Length Distribution and Dispersion during the Injection Moulding Process: An experimental study evaluating fibre length attrition and dispersion during processing of long glass fibre reinforced polymer composites in injection moulding including an evaluation of long glass fibre measurement techniques

      Caton-Rose, Philip D.; Whiteside, Benjamin R.; Kelly, Adrian L.; Gibson, Millan-John
      This project evaluates fibre length dispersion and distribution within the injection moulding process of long glass fibre reinforced polypropylene, sponsored by Autodesk Simulation. The primary material used in this investigation was a 15 mm long glass fibre reinforced polypropylene consisting of two fibre content levels, 20 wt. % and 40 wt. %. A review of previous research was compiled in this study to evaluate various glass fibre measurement methods and fibre breakage studies to establish where along the injection moulding process fibre breakage predominantly occurs and which process parameters have the greatest influence on fibre length distribution along the screw. Based on literature findings, a manual fibre length measurement method was developed and applied in this study and benchmarked against existing commercially available automated software programs and found to be more accurate in obtaining a reliable fibre length distribution within a glass fibre reinforced sample. Fibre length measurements from the nozzle confirmed that the majority of fibre breakage had already occurred in the screw. Measurements taken along the screw showed a drastic decrease in weighted average glass fibre length from initial pellet form to the end of the metering zone with sudden transitions to lower weighted average values seen at the beginning of the feeding zone and along the compression zone. Fibre dispersion results from the nozzle and along the screw through the use of a μ-CT scanner showed a complex fibre flow and orientation of fibres with the preservation of fibre clusters being seen all along the injection moulding process but chiefly in the feeding and compression zones of the screw.
    • A fibre optic system for distributed temperature sensing based on raman scattering.

      Not named; Wang, Haichao (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics and media, 2013-01-23)
      This thesis is based on a research project to monitor the temperature profile along a power cable using the fibre optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology. Based on the temperature measured by a DTS system, real time condition monitoring of power cables can be achieved. In this thesis, there are three main research themes. 1. Develop a DTS system for industrial applications. The entire hardware system and measuring software are developed to be an industrial product. Multiple functions are provided for the convenience of users to conduct temperature monitoring, temperature history logging and off-line simulation. 2. Enhance the robustness of the DTS system. An algorithm for signal compensation is developed to eliminate the signal fluctuation due to disturbance from the hardware and its working environment. It ensures robustness of the system in industrial environments and applicability to different system configurations. 3. Improve the accuracy of the DTS system. A calibration algorithm based on cubic spline fitting is developed to cope with non-uniform fibre loss in the system, which greatly improved the accuracy of the temperature decoding in real applications with unavoidable nonlinear characteristics. The developed DTS system and the algorithms have been verified by continuous experiments for about one year and achieved a temperature resolution of 0.1 degree Celsius, a spatial resolution of 1 meter, and a maximum error of 2 degree Celsius in an optic fibre with the length of 2910 metres.
    • Fibre Orientation and Breakage in Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite Systems: Experimental Validation of Models for Injection Mouldings. Validation of Short and Long Fibre Prediction Models within Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight 2014

      Caton-Rose, Philip D.; Sweeney, John; Parveen, Bushra (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics University of Bradford, 2014)
      End-gated and centre gated mouldings have been assessed with varying thickness and sprue geometries for the centre gate. Alternative image analysis techniques are used to measure the orientation and length of injection moulded short and long fibres composite components. The fibre orientation distribution (FOD) measurements for both geometries have been taken along the flow path. In shear flow the FOD changes along the flow path, however the FOD remains relatively constant during expansion flow. The core width and FOD at the skin within a long glass fibre (LGF) specimen is different in comparison to a short glass fibre (SGF) specimen. Fibre length measurements have been taken from the extrudate, sprue and 2 positions within the centre gate cavity. The size of the sprue has little influence on fibre breakage if the moulding is more than 1 mm thick The SGF FOD prediction models within Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight 2014 (ASMI) have been validated against measured SGF data. At present, by default, the models over-predict the <cos2θ> for most geometries. When the coefficients are tailored for each model, drastic improvements are seen in the FOD prediction. The recently developed SGF RSC model accurately predicts the FOD in shear, in a thin geometry, whereas the Folgar-Tucker model predicts the FOD accurately in expansion flow. The measured LGF fibre length distribution (FLD) and FOD have been validated against the LGF prediction models. The LGF models are currently under predicting the breakage and over-predicting <cos2θ>. The breakage prediction improves if measured FLD of the extrudate is input into the model.
    • The final masquerade: a molecular-based approach to the identification of resinous plant exudates in Roman mortuary contexts in Britain and evaluation of their significance

      Heron, Carl P.; Stern, Ben; Brettell, Rhea C. (University of BradfordDivision of Archaeological Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2016)
      This study provides chemical confirmation for the use of resinous plant exudates in mortuary contexts in Roman Britain. Analysis of amorphous masses, adhering residues and grave deposits using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has revealed terpenoid biomarkers in sixteen inhumation and two cremation burials. The natural products characterized include European Pinaceae (conifer) resins, Pistacia spp. (mastic/terebinth) resins from the Mediterranean or the Levant and Boswellia spp. (frankincense) gum-resins from southern Arabia or eastern Africa. In addition, traces of a balsamic resin, probably Liquidambar orientalis, have been identified. A correlation between the use of these exotic exudates and interment in substantial, often multiple, containers with high-quality textiles and grave goods was observed. Theoretical consideration of this imported rite illuminates the multiplicity of roles played by resins/gum-resins in the mortuary sphere. The material properties of these highly scented substances speak to the biological reality of the decomposing body and to the socially constructed identity of the individual. On a practical level, they acted as temporary preservatives and masked the odour of decay. As social signifiers, they denoted the status of the deceased and promoted remembrance through conspicuous consumption and sensory impact. Encoded with ritual meaning, they purified the body and facilitated the final rite of passage to the afterlife. The recovery of these resinous traces provides us with new insights into the treatment of the body in the Roman period and establishes fresh links between the remote province of Britannia and the remainder of the Empire.
    • The financial performance of small and medium sized companies: A model based on accountancy data is developed to predict the financial performance of small and medium sized companies.

      Betts, James; Earmia, Jalal Y. (University of BradfordPost-graduate School of Industrial Technology, 2009-09-08)
      This study is concerned with developing a model to identify small-medium U.K. companies at risk of financial failure up to five years in advance. The importance of small companies in an economy, the impact of their failures, and the lack of failure research with respect to . this population, provided justification for this study. The research was undertaken in two stages. The first stage included a detailed description and discussion of the nature and role of small business in the UK economy, heir relevance, problems and Government involvement in this sector, together with literature review and assessment of past research relevant to this study. The second stage was involved with construction of the models using multiple discriminant analysis, applied to published accountancy data for two groups of failed and nonfailed companies. The later stage was performed in three parts : (1) evaluating five discriminant models for each of five years prior to failure; (2) testing the performance of each of the .five models over time on data not used . in their construction; (3) testing the discriminant models on a validation sample. The purpose was to establish the "best" discriminant model. "Best" was determined according to classification ability of the model and interpretation of variables. Finally a model comprising seven financial ratios measuring four aspects of a company's financial profile, such as profitability, gearing, capital turnover and liquidity was chosen. The model has shown to be a valid tool for predicting companies' health up to five years in advance.
    • Finite Element Modelling of Ventilated Brake Disc Hot Spotting

      Bryant, David; Qi, Hong Sheng; Tang, Jinghan (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics University of Bradford, 2017-10-02)
      Hot spotting of automotive disc brakes is an undesired thermal localisation phenomenon, which is a challenge for numerical modelling in terms of both accuracy and efficiency especially for complex disc geometry. In this research, the aim was to develop a computationally efficient finite element (FE) approach for 2-piece pin-mounted ventilated disc hot spot prediction with acceptable accuracy enabling parametric studies to contribute to the knowledge of the complex mechanisms. A time reduction strategy for the simulations was established by incorporating an axisymmetric brake pad assumption with material scaling factor and the friction characteristics were defined by a user-subroutine. The computing accuracy and efficiency of this method were then verified by comparing with traditional FE models. 2D in-plane, 2D out-of-plane, and 3D models were performed to investigate the effects of ventilated disc hot spotting, radial hot spot/band migration, and hot spotting of realistic complex disc geometry respectively. Both 2D and 3D results were validated using experimental results based on a laboratory dynamometer and showed good correlation. The results suggested that adequate modelling of friction pair contact pressure distribution and the subsequent non-uniform heat generation is essential for hot spot simulation; speed was identified as the determinant for the number of hot spots, whereas hot spot temperature was determined by energy level. Furthermore, recommendations for vent design, pins, disc run-out, cooling, material selection, wear rate, pad length and loading distribution were given. Finally, hot spotting and hot band migration cause-effect chains were established based on the results and discussion.
    • Five paradigms of induction programmes in teacher education: A comparative analysis of teacher induction programmes in Britain, Australia, New Zealand, United States and Canada

      Burns, Robert; Wideen, Marvin; Andrews, Ian H. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Social Analysis (Research in Education Unit)., 1986)
      This thesis is a comparative case study of induction programmes from five different countries: Britain, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and Canada. The intent was to investigate pedagogical and structural factors prevailing within these induction programmes that would encourage the confluence of pre-service, induction, and in-service education. An examination of how these induction programmes might enhance ongoing professional development opportunities for the beginning teacher was also undertaken. Based on a review of literature concerning i) issues, parameters, and pedagogical perspectives of teacher education; ii) the socialization experiences and instructional challenges of beginning teachers; and iii) the processes, academic systems, and programme variations of induction the argument is made that many conflicting and complex pedagogical variables as well as historical, cultural, and educational factors may influence the establishment and institutionalization of induction. A qualitative research methodology was employed using naturalistic inquiry techniques within a case and field study design. Data was derived from interviews, extant documentations, field notes, and evaluation summaries over a three-year period. Documented evidence revealed that no two induction programmes were iden'tical, although various academic, governance and organisational factors did indicate similarities within and among various countries. Confluence of the three stages of teacher education were generally absent from most programmes. Teacher assessment and supervision were identified as important strategies that could either enhance or obstruct professional development among beginning teachers. Self-evaluative activities incorporated as basic teacher assessment procedures were also profiled as critical factors in promoting a self directed beginning teacher. From these findings an identification of five distinguishable paradiams of induction were developed. The five models have been categorized as the laissez-faire model, the Collegial model, the formalized mentor-protege model, the mandated competency-based model, and the self-directing professional model. The latter was absent from the induction programmes that were investigated. Thirteen recommendations were proposed based upon the research findings. Twelve recommendations described how induction may enhance the confluence of teacher education as well as how induction may establish continuous development for beginning teachers. A thirteenth recommendation identified how programme efficacy may be achieved within induction.
    • A flexible approach for mapping between object-oriented databases and xml. A two way method based on an object graph.

      Ridley, Mick J.; Alhajj, R.; Naser, Taher A.J. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2013-03-05)
      One of the most popular challenges facing academia and industry is the development of effective techniques and tools for maximizing the availability of data as the most valuable source of knowledge. The internet has dominated as the core for maximizing data availability and XML (eXtensible Markup Language) has emerged and is being gradually accepted as the universal standard format for platform independent publishing and exchanging data over the Internet. On the other hand, there remain large amount of data held in structured databases and database management systems have been traditionally used for the effective storage and manipulation of large volumes of data. This raised the need for effective methodologies capable of smoothly transforming data between different formats in general and between XML and structured databases in particular. This dissertation addresses the issue by proposing a two-way mapping approach between XML and object-oriented databases. The basic steps of the proposed approach are applied in a systematic way to produce a graph from the source and then transform the graph into the destination format. In other words, the derived graph summarizes characteristics of the source whether XML (elements and attributes) or object-oriented database (classes, inheritance and nesting hierarchies). Then, the developed methodology classifies nodes and links from the graph into the basic constructs of the destination, i.e., elements and attributes for XML or classes, inheritance and nesting hierarchies for object-oriented databases. The methodology has been successfully implemented and illustrative case studies are presented in this document.