• Cabotage: The effects of an external non-tariff measure on the competitiveness of agribusiness in Puerto Rico

      Potts, David J.; Suárez II Gómez, William (University of BradfordBradford Centre for International Development, Faculty of Social Science and International Studies, 2016)
      Small islands developing states (SIDS) sustainability is a United Nations’ aim. Their markets are often influenced by external policies imposed by larger economies. Could an anti-competitive measure affect the food vulnerability of a SIDS? This research examines the effects of an external non-tariff measure (NTM) on Puerto Rico’s (PR) agribusinesses. It explores the effects of a maritime cabotage regulation (US Jones Act) on the affordability and accessibility of produce and grains. PR imports 100% of their needs of grain and over 85% of fresh produce. PR’s food imports are generally from the US and the trade service is restricted to the use of the US maritime transportation. As a result, the supply chain of these two sectors although different, are limited by the US Act that may impact the cost of food, its availability, firms’ efficiency and other structures of production. Using a mixed convergent design, PR’s agrifood supply chains were explored and analysed in relation to the maritime cabotage regulation. Oligopolistic structures and collusion between maritime transporters and local agribusinesses importers limit the access to data, but other internal factors also have a role. Fieldwork shows that while the cabotage regulation itself is a constraint, interaction with others NTM and the current political framework between US and PR are relevant. Factors such as lack of efficiency, poor innovation and a self-limitation of the agribusinesses firms were found. The novelty of this research is the use of mixed methods to evaluate the effects of cabotage on the agrifood supply chain.
    • "Can I trust you with my medicines?" A grounded theory study of patients with Parkinson's disease perceptions of medicines management

      Lucas, Beverley J.; Acomb, C.; Dunsmure, Louise C. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, University of Bradford, 2013-09-20)
      Introduction: People with Parkinson's disease require individualised medication regimens to achieve symptomatic control whilst managing complications of the treatments and the underlying disease. Patients should continue to receive their individualised regimen when they are admitted to hospital but studies have highlighted that this may not happen. There is a paucity of research about patients' perceptions of the management of anti-parkinsonian medicines during a hospital admission and the aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of Parkinson's disease patients admitted to Leeds Teaching Hospitals about the management of their anti-parkinsonian medications.Method: Grounded theory methodology was used to allow detailed exploration of patients' perceptions and to generate theory about this under-researched area. Face to face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 Parkinson's disease patients during their hospital admission, fully transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative approach. Results: Categories contributing to the core category of 'patient anxiety' were identified as 'maintaining usual medication routine', 'access to anti-parkinsonian medications', 'accuracy and consistency', 'trust in healthcare professionals' and 'staff knowledge about Parkinson's disease'. Strategies used to manage the anxiety were related to the categories 'utilising expertise' in Parkinson's disease and 'patient involvement' in their care. Discussion: The theory suggests that some patients have negative perceptions about the management of their medicines during a hospital admission. Areas for practice development are presented along with areas for future research. Conclusion: This study provides new insight into the perceptions of patients with Parkinson's disease about the management of their medicines during a hospital admission.
    • Capacity building of human resources in the oil and gas sector in Ghana: An exploration into the public-sector capacity building of human resources in the emerging oil and gas in Ghana

      Analoui, Farhad; Lawler, John A.; Amenshiah, Ambrose K.
      This empirical research explored the capacity building of human resources in the emerging oil and gas sector in Ghana. Ghana’s oil and gas were discovered in commercial quantities in 2007 by GNPC and its partners in Jubilee field in the Cape Three Point in the western region, which signified a turning point in the development effort of the state. Local skills shortage perceived as a significant challenge. Thus the government envisaged the need to build local skill capacity which attracted an initial grant of US$38 million from World Bank to facilitate the implementation of oil and gas capacity building project in 2010. The study adopted a mixed method approach for primary data collection. Matched samples of employees (226) working in four public sector organisations in the oil and gas sector were surveyed using the simple random technique, while human resource/training and development directors (9) were purposively sampled and interviewed on the human resources capacity building to assess and corroborates the survey data. The study findings confirmed shortcomings in local skills in the public organisations in the petroleum industry. Comparatively, the results suggested that the performance appraisal tools could be further improved. The study also found local skills mismatch. It revealed that inadequate funding and delays in the release of funds affected local skill capacity building in the public-sector organisations in the industry. Originality, this is one of the very few studies to explore the shortcomings of local skill capacity in the selected organisation including the strategies used in addressing the skill gap. Research implications, more matched-sample studies are necessary to understand further how private companies (IOC’s) contributing to local skill capacity building. Practically, the study is of significance to the policymakers to address the skill gap in the energy sector. The main contribution of the research is to conceptualise the concept of HRM in Ghana’s context. The thesis, therefore, is an essential contribution to our understanding of the skill gap in the oil and gas industry in Ghana and the role of HR in this field.
    • Capacity Enhancement Approaches for Long Term Evolution networks: Capacity Enhancement-Inspired Self-Organized Networking to Enhance Capacity and Fairness of Traffic in Long Term Evolution Networks by Utilising Dynamic Mobile Base-Stations

      Awan, Irfan U.; Holton, Robert; Alrowili, Mohammed F.H.
      The long-term evolution (LTE) network has been proposed to provide better network capacity than the earlier 3G network. Driven by the market, the conventional LTE (3G) network standard could not achieve the expectations of the international mobile telecommunications advanced (IMT-Advanced) standard. To satisfy this gap, the LTE-Advanced was introduced with additional network functionalities to meet up with the IMT-Advanced Standard. In addition, due to the need to minimize operational expenditure (OPEX) and reduce human interventions, the wireless cellular networks are required to be self-aware, self-reconfigurable, self-adaptive and smart. An example of such network involves transceiver base stations (BTSs) within a self-organizing network (SON). Besides these great breakthroughs, the conventional LTE and LTE-Advanced networks have not been designed with the intelligence of scalable capacity output especially in sudden demographic changes, namely during events of football, malls, worship centres or during religious and cultural festivals. Since most of these events cannot be predicted, modern cellular networks must be scalable in terms of capacity and coverage in such unpredictable demographic surge. Thus, the use of dynamic BTSs is proposed to be used in modern and future cellular networks for crowd and demographic change managements. Dynamic BTSs are complements of the capability of SONs to search, determine and deploy less crowded/idle BTSs to densely crowded cells for scalable capacity management. The mobile BTSs will discover areas of dark coverages and fill-up the gap in terms of providing cellular services. The proposed network relieves the LTE network from overloading thus reducing packet loss, delay and improves fair load sharing. In order to trail the best (least) path, a bio-inspired optimization algorithm based on swarm-particle optimization is proposed over the dynamic BTS network. It uses the ant-colony optimization algorithm (ACOA) to find the least path. A comparison between an optimized path and the un-optimized path showed huge gain in terms of delay, fair load sharing and the percentage of packet loss.
    • A case for peace photojournalism in Northern Ireland: A media content analysis.

      Not named; Shebib, Lisa A. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2017)
      Contemporary studies of Peace Journalism have yet to examine how photographs, as visual content captured by print media, fit within the model of Peace Journalism. In this research, a content analysis of press images was conducted using predefined methodology on newspaper coverage of the annual July 12th Drumcree Parades (Marching) in Portadown, Northern Ireland, during the pre-, intra-, and post-peace process that occurred between 1996 and 2000. In most newspapers, the proportions of both violent/aggressive and nonviolent/non-peaceful content were higher in the relatively peaceful period of 2000, as compared to their proportions in at least one of the other ‘violent’ years of 1996 and 1998. No overall trend in content was observed in relation to the level of violence across 1996 to 2000. During this period, media practice in Portadown, Northern Ireland did not support the publication of newspaper commensurate with actual level of violence in the Northern Ireland or the depictions of peace building and the peaceful resolution of conflict. The implications of these findings for the development of ‘Peace Photojournalism’ are explored.
    • Cash Transfers: Ladders or Handouts? An Analysis of Community Targeted Social Cash Transfers, Machinga District, Malawi

      Mdee (nee Toner), Anna L.; Morvaridi, Behrooz; Nkhoma, Sydney (University of BradfordBradford Centre For International Development, 2016)
      This thesis examines whether, how and to what extent social cash transfers help the poor in reducing poverty; not only in income terms but also in relation to how they build on their capabilities and address gender inequality, risk and vulnerability. The thesis explores these questions through an analysis of a community targeted social cash transfer scheme from Traditional Authority Mlomba, Machinga district in Malawi, using the capability approach as the conceptual framework of analysis. The study is located in the critical realist domain as its underlying research philosophy. The study is qualitative in nature, using semi-structured interviews, observations and life histories. The scheme targets the poorest 10% of the population who are also labour constrained and deemed to be economically unproductive. Thus, the study offers some insights into an area that is not well researched as it is a relatively new concept to target the poor who are also labour constrained and not economically productive. In this thesis, I show that despite the limited resource base compared to the large number of the poor, social cash transfers as low as US$14 per household per month can make a valuable contribution to the reduction of poverty through building capabilities of the poor, empowering women and addressing some of the gendered inequalities, risk and vulnerability. Therefore, social cash transfers are not just handouts but act as ladders that can uplift the absolute poor out of poverty.
    • Catalytic efficiency of zerovalent iron compounds as paint driers compared with conventional substances: The use of ferrocene and other iron compounds as driers in autoxidative paint systems at ambient and elevated temperatures.

      Apperley, T.W.J.; Agada, Otokpa C-M. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Colour Chemistry and Colour Technology., 2009-09-29)
      Novel paint driers based on iron co-ordination complexes were investigated for use as stoving finishes in oil-based coatings. Cis 9, cis 12-octadecadienoic acid was employed as a model vehicle because of its high drying capacity. Iron compounds generally have low catalytic efficiency at low temperatures which however improve with rises in temperature. The catalytic efficiency of some iron compounds was compared with those of some conventional driers at room temperature; 60 C, 80 C and 1200 C. To make the results comparative, equal weights of drier (0.05%) metal were employed in one series of experiments. In another series, a much higher concentration (0.25%) metal based on the weight of 9,12-octadecadienoic acid was employed. Equal weights of drier combination(s) and variable drier weights were examined to determine synergism or antagonism in the autoxidative systems. Maximum oxygen absorption, changes in iodine and peroxide values were monitored to determine a comparative catalytic performance of the driers at the reaction temperatures used. The reactivity of iron co-ordination complexes was found to be influenced by the organic compound with which the iron is chelated. Zerovalent iron complexes can be employed as high temperature driers. For convenience some common names have been used for major chemicals of importance in this work, e. g., Linoleic acid; cis 9, cis 12-octadecadienoic acid. Ferrocene; dicyclopentadienyl iron.
    • Causal factors in teacher stress and morale. Causes of absenteeism, low morale, illness and loss of efficiency among secondary school teachers with recommendations for the improvement of working conditions, effectiveness and the self-concept of teachers.

      Dobson, C.; Mills, Sandra Hartington (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Social Analysis (Research in Education Unit)., 2009-11-03)
      Problems that face teachers, especially those in secondary schools, are discussed. How they have developed over the years to what is now considered to be a crisis level, the increase in absenteeism and illness of the teaching force are also reviewed. A review of existing material explains the nature of stress. The psychobiological aspects are reviewed paying particular attention to the many coping mechanisms that the person will employ and explains how perceptions of situations can play a vital role. Factors that create stress for the teacher are discussed and categorised into familiar sections including pupils, working conditions, working in an organisation, the effects of management, the self concept and role conflict. Selection, training, assessment, pay and promotion are dealt with together in an additional category. Results from a Questionnaire completed by teachers from four local education authorities provides additional material to be considered and reinforces many of the previous claims and observations. After the findings are discussed, conclusions and recommendations are made for the improvement of morale and the reduction of stress in the teaching profession. Many of the conclusions made are linked closely to the self concept of the teacher. This self concept appears to be the focal point at which the problems besetting the teacher meet and are dealt with in either a positive or negative manner. Many of the recommendations made have the effect on the self concept of the teacher as a prominent feature. The stress provoking situations experienced by teachers seem to be reaching unacceptable levels. The physical and mental welfare of teachers is called upon to be monitored in order to reduce the harmful effects that poorly motivated teachers may have on pupils and in order to reduce the physical and mental difficulties apparently being suffered by the teaching profession.
    • Cell and tissue engineering of articular cartilage via regulation and alignment of primary chondrocyte using manipulated transforming growth factors and ECM proteins. Effect of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-¿1, 2 and 3) on the biological regulation and wound repair of chondrocyte monolayers with and without presence of ECM proteins.

      Youseffi, Mansour; Denyer, Morgan C.T.; Khaghani, Seyed A. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering Design and Technology, 2012-01-31)
      Articular cartilage is an avascular and flexible connective tissue found in joints. It produces a cushioning effect at the joints and provides low friction to protect the ends of the bones from wear and tear/damage. It has poor repair capacity and any injury can result pain and loss of mobility. One of the common forms of articular cartilage disease which has a huge impact on patient¿s life is arthritis. Research on cartilage cell/tissue engineering will help patients to improve their physical activity by replacing or treating the diseased/damaged cartilage tissue. Cartilage cell, called chondrocyte is embedded in the matrix (Lacunae) and has round shape in vivo. The in vitro monolayer culture of primary chondrocyte causes morphological change characterized as dedifferentiation. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-¿), a cytokine superfamily, regulates cell function, including differentiation and proliferation. The effect of TGF-¿1, 2, 3, and their manipulated forms in biological regulation of primary chondrocyte was investigated in this work. A novel method was developed to isolate and purify the primary chondrocytes from knee joint of neonate Sprague-Dawley rat, and the effect of some supplementations such as hyaluronic acid and antibiotics were also investigated to provide the most appropriate condition for in vitro culture of chondrocyte cells. Addition of 0.1mg/ml hyaluronic acid in chondrocyte culture media resulted an increase in primary chondrocyte proliferation and helped the cells to maintain chondrocytic morphology. TGF-¿1, 2 and 3 caused chondrocytes to obtain fibroblastic phenotype, alongside an increase in apoptosis. The healing process of the wound closure assay of chondrocyte monolayers were slowed down by all three isoforms of TGF-¿. All three types of TGF-¿ negatively affected the strength of chondrocyte adhesion. TGF-¿1, 2 and 3 up regulated the expression of collagen type-II, but decreased synthesis of collagen type-I, Chondroitin sulfate glycoprotein, and laminin. They did not show any significant change in production of S-100 protein and fibronectin. TGF-¿2, and 3 did not change expression of integrin-¿1 (CD29), but TGF-¿1 decreased the secretion of this adhesion protein. Manipulated TGF-¿ showed huge impact on formation of fibroblast like morphology of chondrocytes with chondrocytic phenotype. These isoforms also decreased the expression of laminin, chondroitin sulfate glycoprotein, and collagen type-I, but they increased production of collagen type-II and did not induce synthesis of fibronectin and S-100 protein. In addition, the strength of cell adhesion on solid surface was reduced by manipulated TGF-¿. Only manipulated form of TGF-¿1 and 2 could increase the proliferation rate. Manipulation of TGF-¿ did not up regulate the expression of integrin-¿1in planar culture system. The implications of this R&D work are that the manipulation of TGF-¿ by combination of TGF-¿1, 2, and 3 can be utilized in production of superficial zone of cartilage and perichondrium. The collagen, fibronectin and hyaluronic acid could be recruited for the fabrication of a biodegradable scaffold that promotes chondrocyte growth for autologous chondrocyte implantation or for formation of cartilage.
    • Cell engineering of human bone monolayers and the effect of growth factors and microcontact printed ECM proteins on wound healing. The role of ECM proteins, TGF¿-1, 2 and 3 and HCl/BSA in cellular adhesion, wound healing and imaging of the cell surface interface with the widefield surface plasmon microscope.

      Youseffi, Mansour; Denyer, Morgan C.T.; Sefat, Farshid (University of BradfordDivision of Medical Engineering, School of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-12-06)
      Bone repair is modulated by different stimuli. There is evidence that the Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-¿) super-family of cytokines have significant effects on bone structure by regulating the replication and differentiation of chondrocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. There is also significant evidence that interactions with extracellular matrix molecules also influence cell behaviour. This study aimed at determining the role of the TGF-¿s, Collagen type I, Fibronectin and Laminin in bone cell behaviour. To do this MG63 bone cells were used to examine cell adhesion and alignment to different micro-contact printed ECM protein patterns of different widths. The study also aimed at examining how TGF-¿1, 2 and 3 and their solvent and carrier (HCl and BSA, respectively) effected cell surface interactions, cell morphology, cell proliferation and integrin expression. Finally, this study also aimed at examining how the TGF-¿s and their solvent and carrier influenced wound closure in an in vitro wound closure model and how TGF-¿s influence ECM secretion and integrin expression. 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100¿m wide repeat gratings of Collagen type I, Fibronectin and Laminin patterns were stamp patterned onto glass slides and plated with MG63 cells at 50,000 cells per coverslip. Cells on the fibronectin pattern attached and elongated soon after seeding, but did not adhere readily to collagen and laminin and appeared more rounded until 18hrs after seeding. Cells aligned significantly well on the 50¿m and 100¿m wide fibronectin patterned coverslips with mean angles of alignment ~7.87¿ ¿ 3.06SD and 6.45¿ ¿ 5.08SD, respectively, compared to those with smaller width (p<0.001). In comparison, cells aligned less readily to the other two ECM proteins, showing optimal alignments of 9.66¿ ¿ 4.18SD and 14.36¿ ¿ 1.57SD to the 50¿m wide collagen and laminin patterns, respectively. Differences in cell length mirrored those of alignment, with cells acquiring the greatest length when showing the greatest degree of alignment. The results indicate that MG63 cells responded significantly better to 50 and 100¿m wide fibronectin patterns compared to those with smaller width (p<0.001) indicating that the cells may attach mostly via fibronectin specific integrins. Cell surface attachment was examined via a trypsinisation assay in which the time taken to trypsinise cells from the surface provided a means of assessing the strength of attachment. The results indicated that treatment with the solvent (HCl), TGF-¿1, 2 and 3 all decreased cell attachment, but this effect was significantly greater in the case of HCl and TGF-¿3 (p<0.001). However, there were significant differences in trypsinisation rates between HCl and TGF-¿3 (p<0.001). The wound healing response to the TGF-¿s and their solvent/carrier was also investigated in 300¿m ± 10-30¿m SD wide model wounds induced in fully confluent monolayers of MG63 bone cells. The results indicated that TGF-¿3 and HCl significantly enhance wound closure when compared against negative controls, TGF-¿1 and TGF-¿2 treatment (p<0.001). It was also found that TGF-¿1 and TGF-¿2 treatment significantly improved wound closure rate in comparison to the controls (p<0.001). Experiments were performed to determine if the HCl effects on wound closure were dose dependent. Cells were incubated with 20¿M, 40¿M, 80¿M and 160¿M concentrations of HCl prior to wounding and wound closure rates were recorded. Wound closure was dependent on HCl dose with the 80¿M and 160¿M concentrations inducing increases in wound closure rates that were both significantly greater than those induced by 20¿M, 40¿M and control treatments (p<0.001). However, there were significant differences in wound closure between the 80¿M and 160¿M treatment groups after 30hrs of treatment (p<0.001). The effect of different TGF-¿ isomers and their combinations on proliferation rate and cell length of human bone cells were also assessed. The results suggest that cell morphology changes were observed significantly more in cells treated with TGF-¿(2+3) and TGF-¿(1+3) (p<0.001). Any cell treated with TGF-¿1, TGF-¿(1+2) and TGF-¿(1+2+3) showed significantly less elongation compared to the control and other TGF-¿ isomers. In terms of proliferation rate, TGF-¿3 and TGF-¿(2+3) increased cell numbers more than TGF-¿1, TGF-¿2 and other combinations. TGF-¿1 and its combinations did not show significant proliferation and attachment compared to the control due to perhaps its inhibitory effect in contact with human bone cells. Immunostaining indicated that treatment with TGF-¿3 significantly promoted the secretion of collagen type I and anti-human fibronectin in addition to integrin (¿3 and ¿1) expression. Statistically TGF-¿3 and their combinations showed significant differences in number of cells stained for collagen type I, anti-human fibronectin, ¿3 and ¿1integrin. Any cell treated with TGF-¿1 or any combination with TGF-¿1 showed significantly lower cell number stained with the same proteins and integrins (p<0.001). Imaging with WSPR allowed observation of the focal contacts without the need for immunostaining. WSPR images revealed guided cells with high contrast band like structures at the border of cells distal to the edge of guidance cue to which they aligned and with less concentrically formed band like features across the cell body. It is believed that the high contrast features are associated with the formation of focal contacts on the edge of the cells distal to the edge of fibronectin patterns, which suggests that cell guidance is aided by a decrease in cell attachment along a guidance feature. The WSPR experiments also indicated that TGF-¿s influenced the distribution of focal contacts. In the case of TGF-¿1 treated cells the bright high contrast regions were intense but only arranged around the periphery of the cell. In TGF-¿2 and TGF-¿3 cells the bright contrast regions were weaker but again mostly localised around the periphery. These findings supported the earlier trypsinisation results.
    • A cell level automated approach for quantifying antibody staining in immunohistochemistry images. A structural approach for quantifying antibody staining in colonic cancer spheroid images by integrating image processing and machine learning towards the implementation of computer aided scoring of cancer markers.

      Jiang, Jianmin; Phillips, Roger M.; Holton, Robert; Khorshed, Reema A.A. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, School of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2013-12-09)
      Immunohistological (IHC) stained images occupy a fundamental role in the pathologist¿s diagnosis and monitoring of cancer development. The manual process of monitoring such images is a subjective, time consuming process that typically relies on the visual ability and experience level of the pathologist. A novel and comprehensive system for the automated quantification of antibody inside stained cell nuclei in immunohistochemistry images is proposed and demonstrated in this research. The system is based on a cellular level approach, where each nucleus is individually analyzed to observe the effects of protein antibodies inside the nuclei. The system provides three main quantitative descriptions of stained nuclei. The first quantitative measurement automatically generates the total number of cell nuclei in an image. The second measure classifies the positive and negative stained nuclei based on the nuclei colour, morphological and textural features. Such features are extracted directly from each nucleus to provide discriminative characteristics of different stained nuclei. The output generated from the first and second quantitative measures are used collectively to calculate the percentage of positive nuclei (PS). The third measure proposes a novel automated method for determining the staining intensity level of positive nuclei or what is known as the intensity score (IS). The minor intensity features are observed and used to classify low, intermediate and high stained positive nuclei. Statistical methods were applied throughout the research to validate the system results against the ground truth pathology data. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and provide high accuracy when compared to the ground truth pathology data.
    • Ceramic production in a Roman frontier zone: A comparative Neutron Activation and Petro-Textural analysis of Roman coarse pottery from selected sites on and around the Antonine wall, Scotland.

      Aspinall, A.; Jones, Rick F.J.; Breeze, D.J.; Gillings, Mark (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2009-09-03)
      A series of recent excavations on the 2nd Century AD Antonine frontier forts of the Midland Scottish valley, have produced results which suggest that the army was making its own pottery on an appreciable scale. This was at a time when pottery production was thought to have moved almost exclusively into civilian hands. The possible local ware groups identified by the excavations were largely independent of firm source indicators such as kiln and waster material and the number of available samples was often-small. A program of Neutron Activation and Thin Section petrological analyses was undertaken along with an investigation into Textural Analysis, a facet of the Petrological toolkit. The aim was both to define the site ware groups and a group of specialist vessels thought to be local to Scotland, the Mortaria, and to make statements as to their provenance. Although the Mortaria analysis was limited by problems of sample group size and availability, by improving the objectivity of the statistical handling of the derived data sets and developing methods for the high level study of textural data, the site ware groups were defined successfully at both the "intrall and "inter" site levels. The analyses also furnished interpretations as to the mode and nature of the site production schemes. Through the full analysis of' site Daub samples linked to more traditional provenancing techniques, in all but one case the ware groups could be assigned to the source sites, where contrasting production modes could be identified with military as opposed to civilian production.
    • Chain Extension of Polyamide-6 & Polyamide-6/Organoclay Nanocomposites. Control of thermal degradation of polyamide-6/organoclay nanocomposites during extrusion using a novel chain extender

      Benkreira, Hadj; Kelly, Adrian L.; Tuna, Basak (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2016)
      Novel solutions to offset thermal degradation of polyamide-6 (PA-6) and organoclay (organically modified layered silicates) nanocomposites during melt compounding have been investigated. In this research, a novel chain extender (Joncryl ADR 3400) has been used to improve thermal stability of PA-6 and PA- 6/organoclay nanocomposites during melt compounding. The materials were compounded using a linear twin extruder and various laboratory scale mixers. The effects of organoclay and chain extender were studied using both processing methods. In order to replicate large scale production used in industry, a comprehensive plan of experimental work was carried out under different processing conditions (extrusion temperature and screw speed), organoclay and chain extender loading using a linear twin screw extruder. Rheology, mechanical and thermal properties were analysed and selected samples were also characterised by TEM and FTIR. Process induced degradation of PA-6 during the melt compounding was found to have significant influence on the rheological and mechanical properties. Rheological and mechanical characterisation clearly showed showed that incorporation of the chain extender minimised thermal degradation of PA-6 and nanocomposites during melt processing. Visual analysis of selected nanocomposites using TEM confirmed that chain extender increased the dispersion of nanoclays in the PA- 6 matrix. The crystallinity of the PA-6 was slightly affected by addition of organoclay and chain extender. The samples obtained by linear twin screw extrusion showed higher rheological properties than the samples from laboratory scale mixers suggesting better mixing and less thermal degradation during extrusion.
    • Challenges and Opportunities: The Impact of the Press Law (2008) on the Role of Journalism in the Kurdistan Region post-2003

      Roberts, Benjamin L.; Robison, David J.; Mawlood, Saman Jalal (University of BradfordBradford Media School, School of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2012-01-31)
      This thesis examines the role of the media in the Kurdistan Region focusing on developments since the fall of Saddam Hussein¿s regime in 2003 in order to identify the challenges which have faced journalists there, and the construction of national identity and the potential opportunities which this sector presents for shaping public opinion and strengthening the nascent democracy in the region. After tracing the history of the Kurdish media against the broader backdrop of Iraq, using an interdisciplinary approach, this thesis analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the Kurdish media, with particular reference to regulation, examining the Press Law (2008). It concludes with a series of recommendations regarding the growth and development of new opportunities in the Kurdish media. In addition, it will present arguments to support the urgent need to develop a legal and regulatory framework which is fit-for-purpose for the media in this style democracy.
    • Changes in historical romance, 1890s to the 1980s. The development of the genre from Stanley Weyman to Georgette Heyer and her successors.

      Not named; Hughes, Helen Muriel (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Interdisciplinary Human Studies., 2010-02-10)
    • Changes in the size and shape of domestic mammals across the North Atlantic region over time. The effects of environment and economy on bone growth of livestock from the Neolithic to the Post Medieval period with particular reference to the Scandinavian expansion westwards.

      Bond, Julie M.; Cussans, Julia E. (University of BradfordDivision of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences, 2013-12-02)
      A large database of domestic mammal bone measurements from sites across Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and the Northern and Western Isles of Scotland is presented. The reasons for variations in bone growth of domestic ungulates are examined in detail; nutrition is identified as a key factor in the determination of adult bone size and shape. Possible sources of variation in bone size in both time and space in the North Atlantic region are identified. Four hypotheses are proposed; firstly that bone dimensions, particularly breadth, will decrease with increasing latitude in the study region; secondly that higher status sites will raise larger livestock than lower status sites within the same time period and region; thirdly the size of domestic mammals in the Northern and Western Isles of Scotland will increase in the Later Iron Age, possibly in relation to increased fodder supply; finally at times of environmental degradation (climatic and/or landscape) domestic mammal size will decrease. The latitude hypothesis could only be partly upheld; there is no evidence for increased size with site status; a small increase in size is noted at some Scottish Iron Age sites and varying results are found for the environmental degradation hypothesis. The results are discussed with particular reference to how changes in the skeletal proportions of domestic mammals affect their human carers and beneficiaries. The potential of further expanding the dataset and integrating biometrical data with other forms of evidence to create a powerful tool for the examination of economic and environmental changes at archaeological sites is discussed.
    • Changes in the status and distribution of mammals of the order Carnivora in Yorkshire from 1600. County history of the fox, badger, otter, pine marten, stoat, weasel, polecat, American mink, wildcat and domestic cat.

      Seaward, Mark R.D.; Howes, Colin Anthony (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences., 2010-05-19)
      Data derived largely from ecclesiastical (mostly churchwardens¿) accounts, foxhunting statistics, local scientific society records and 19th and 20th century literature sources from a wide range of published material, have provided detailed evidence of the status and changes in distribution over the past four centuries in Yorkshire for fox (Vulpes vulpes), badger (Meles meles), otter (Lutra lutra), pine marten (Martes martes), stoat (Mustela erminea), weasel (M. nivalis), polecat (M. putorius), American mink (M. vison), wildcat (Felis silvestris) and domestic cat (Felis catus). In the case of the domestic cat, questionnaire surveys quantified population sizes and predatory activity in rural, suburban and urban situations. Evidence of the former distribution of all the carnivores studied provides a credible historical basis for biodiversity action planning and the substantial archived database and bibliography provide further research opportunities.
    • Changing dynamics of NGO accountability. A hegemonic analysis of a Sri Lankan case

      Morvaridi, Behrooz; Mdee (nee Toner), Anna L.; Tennakoon Mudiyanselage, Anula T. (University of BradfordDepartment of Development and Economic Studies, 2012-01-25)
    • The characteristics of effective leadership in an academic context: A case study of four colleges of technology in Oman

      Spicer, David P.; Maybury, Alan; Al Kalbani, Darwish A.A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2017)
      Purpose – The purpose of this study is to advance the literature on leadership by investigating the Full Range Leadership Model (FRLM) Bass and Avolio (1994-1997) in the context of the Colleges of Technology (CoTs) in Oman. Design/methodology/approach – In order to achieve the research objective and answer the research questions, a qualitative study was undertaken. The data was obtained by two methods, namely semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The semi-structured interviews were held with College Deans, Heads of Departments (HoDs) and teachers. The focus groups were carried out with seven groups of students from four CoTs. The data was analysed by a thematic approach, following the systematic steps outlined by Braun and Clarke (2006). Findings – Significant relationships were found between the transactional leadership approach and institutional theory (Isomorphism and legitimacy). The findings advance leadership knowledge by exploring the relationship between the components of FRLM, transformational and the transactional leadership approaches in hierarchical levels of leadership in the context of the CoTs in Oman. Both the Deans and the HoDs employed transactional leadership approaches to ensure compliance with the requirements of the Ministry of Manpower. Moreover, the study extended the leadership literature by exploring the interaction between leadership approaches of the Deans and the HoDs on multi-national teachers and Omani students. Originality/value – The originality of this research lies in its exploration of the relationship between transformational and transactional leadership approaches in hierarchical levels of academic leadership and its identification of the characteristics of effective leadership in HEIs from a multicultural perspective.
    • Chemical control. Exploring mechanisms for the regulation of riot control agents, incapacitants and related means of delivery.

      Dando, Malcolm R.; Whitby, Simon M.; Crowley, Michael J.A. (University of BradfordPeace Studies Division, School of Social and International Studies, 2013-11-27)
      A holistic arms control (HAC) analytical framework was employed to explore the full range of mechanisms that could potentially be utilised to effectively regulate the development, stockpiling, transfer or use of riot control agents (RCAs), incapacitants and related means of delivery. From this analysis it is clear that the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and its attendant regime are the most appropriate and probably the most receptive mechanisms, at least in the short term, for the discussion of these concerns and the development of appropriate policy responses. However, the response of CWC States Parties to these issues is by no means certain and parallel processes should be established to explore alternative regulatory mechanisms with the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, UN drugs conventions, international and regional human rights instruments, international humanitarian law, and transfer controls potentially yielding positive results in the next five to ten year period. Other regimes that may well prove important in the longer term include: the international criminal court and other international criminal law entities; the UN Secretary General¿s investigation mechanism and other ad hoc UN investigatory mechanisms. A comprehensive HAC strategy for the regulation of RCAs, incapacitants and related means of delivery will also require active involvement of informed and activist civil society in societal verification; development and promotion of norms prohibiting the involvement of scientific and medical communities in weaponisation programmes intended for malign application; and far greater active engagement of such expert communities in relevant State and international policy development processes.