• Exploring violence through the narratives of youth in Kenyan secondary schools: Implications for reconceptualising peacebuilding

      Porto, Joao Gomes; Poku, Nana K.; Wachira, T.W. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2014-05-01)
      Based on the narratives of young people this research explores the rise in youth violence in Kenya¿s secondary school system and wider society and the potential for peacebuilding to address youth violence. Of particular concern is the gradual change in the profiles, patterns and intensity of the conflict, as evidenced by the increase in the number of youth militias. This increase is often attributed to unemployment and poverty ¿ yet, to date, no systematic research has been produced on the extent to which the youth participation in violence occurs through choice or coercion, or indeed both. Worryingly, a significant number of young people involved in this violence are secondary school students. The findings of this research indicate that despite responses to youth violence in the school and wider Kenyan society, the violence is unabated. Notably, approaches continue to be top-down, generic, superficial and ineffectual. By marginalising the narratives of the youth who participate in and/or observe the violence, current institutional policies and approaches are decontextualised - from both the particular and the wider Kenyan context. This leaves intact the root causes of the violence. This research raises important questions concerning generic, top-down, quick-fix, outmoded cultural paradigms, hierarchical and questionable homogeneous pedagogical approaches to peacebuilding in both the schools and wider Kenyan context. In attempt to address these deficiencies the research seeks to find out approaches to peacebuilding and the Kenyan education systems that can respond to youth violence. This research proffers three key dimensions that can be incorporated in order to ensure effective and sustainable peace: experiences, worldviews and attitudes of the actors. The research, which utilises a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), was conducted in fourteen secondary schools in Nairobi and the Rift Valley provinces ¿ two provinces that have been at the centre of youth violence and militia activities. These provinces were also selected in order to reflect the multi-cultural and multi-ethnic character, and the different types of schools in Kenya.
    • A multi-method study identifying the barriers and solutions to meeting the physical and psychological health needs of young people involved in or vulnerable to sexual exploitation

      Newell, Robert J.; Small, Neil A.; Sture, Judi; McClelland, Gabrielle T. (University of BradfordSchool of Health Studies, 2011-12-07)
      Awareness of sexual exploitation has increased over the past decade. However, physical and psychological health needs, risks, health seeking behaviour and use of health services by sexually exploited young people have been inadequately explored. Methodology/method Phase 1: descriptive, phenomenological, approach to encourage young people involved in or vulnerable to sexual exploitation to describe their personal accounts of health, risks, health seeking and support. Phase 2: quantitative methodology consisting of a questionnaire survey with professionals supporting young people involved in or vulnerable to sexual exploitation. Data analysis Phase 1: phenomenological approach to data analysis (Giorgi, 1985). Phase 2: questionnaire data were analysed using software S.P.S.S. and thematic content analysis (Burnard, 2006). Results/findings Intentional self harm and substance misuse were concordant themes from phase 1 and 2. Novel themes that emerged from this study included a taxonomy of risk behaviours related to health, and the use of youth offending teams for health support Conclusion A significant range of physical and psychological health problems were reported alongside risks to health and barriers to health support for sexually exploited young people. Psycho-social vulnerability factors undermine health and impact on health seeking behaviour.
    • Responding to children affected by armed conflict: A case study of Save the Children Fund (1919-1999).

      Rigby, Andrew; Sellick, Patricia (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2009-06-18)
      Save the Children Fund (SCF) was at its foundation in 1919 a value-driven organization. The values, or guiding principles, of the founding generation are the lens through which I look at the history of SCF, and the associated histories of war and peace, human rights and NGO-state relations. These guiding principles are identified as universalism, utilitarianism and optimistic pacificism. They can be understood as a paradigm to which the social community which made up the founding generation of SCF gave their assent. The first chapter locates the founding generation within the political culture of the anti-war movement. Succeeding chapters detail the metamorphosis of SCIF from a'contentious social movement into a respectable national organization. As soon as the organization adopted a national rather than a universal orientation, the coordinates of all its guiding principles shifted. In particular the optimistic pacificism of the founding generation was replaced by pessimistic defencism. It was not until after the Cold War that SCIF began to realign itself with its original guiding principles. The three guiding principles are found to be of continuing relevance. Universalism has been reasserted as a positive creed leading SCF to seize political opportunities to reach out to children from all sides. The organization has adopted a utilitarian perspective that affirms the dynamic role of young people in generating their own futures. Lastly, the primacy attached to peace by war-affected people has underlined SCFs urgent mission to uphold an optimistic belief in the possibility of peace.