• An analysis of trauma resilience among Hausa young people affected by ethno-religious violence in Jos.

      Kelly, Rhys H.S.; Pankhurst, Donna T.; Fetherston, A. Betts; Dagona, Zubairu K. (University of BradfordDivision of Peace Studies, 2014-05-07)
      This study explored the experiences of Hausa young people in the Jos ethno-religious crisis. It sought to answer the following research question: is there evidence of trauma resilience among the Hausa young people in Jos? If established, further enquiry into the methods employed by the social organisation to make its young people resilient was made. A qualitative study of 32 young people (16 females and 16 males) drawn from the social organisation discussed their experiences during the crisis in a focus group forum. In addition, 16 parents (consisting of 8 males and 8 females) discussed their experiences and observations of the young people¿s behaviours during and after the crisis. Furthermore, focus group discussions were held with some hospital workers (comprising 2 male and 4 female staff) to gain insight into their experiences of working with the young people during the crisis. Five traditional/religious leaders in Jos were also interviewed to share their experiences during and after the crisis. Focus groups, picture drawings and individual interviews were used to capture and illuminate on the young people¿s experiences. The results revealed that there is high level of resilience among the young people. The young people through their discussions and pictures demonstrated that they had faced many difficulties during the crisis, and presented symptoms of trauma, but these symptoms were not severe enough to attract a diagnosis of PTSD and did not require treatment. All the young people reported a great deal of anxiety and fear (100%), and avoiding some parts of Jos (100%); however, none reported increased irritability (0%) and none reported symptoms of hypervigilance or insomnia (0%). However, the pictures drawn by the young people revealed lots of trauma, some dealing directly with crisis and others in different areas of their lives. Girls reported more traumatic incidents than boys. Likewise, the younger age group (7-12 years) reported more traumatic incidents than the older age group (13-18years). Furthermore, all the young people reported engagement with religiosity/spirituality; social support; cultural factors such as the socialisation process; and individual resources to contain the effects of the conflict and to remain healthy. The young people also gave reasons why they used religion/spirituality; most mentioned it gave them confidence, independence and hope. Gender and age differences were revealed. Girls used more emotion-focused channels to cope with the difficulties in addition to religion/spirituality. Boys used problem-solving channels in addition to religion/spirituality. The younger age group also used more of an emotion focus in addition to religiosity, while the older age group used more problem-solving techniques. The results from the parents, hospital workers and traditional/religious leaders further corroborate the findings from the young people. The findings were discussed alongside the literature (Millwood, 1995, Koenig, King, & Carson, 2012, Bracey, 2010). It is recommended that in times of recovery of a post-conflict society, religion and the indigenous methods should be explored and employed to get the young people out of their emotional difficulties.
    • Exposing institutional influences on entrepreneurship among Kuwaiti youth

      Parkinson, Caroline; Kalantaridis, Christos; Almethen, Abdullah K.M.K. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, Faculty of Management & Law, 2015)
      This research focuses on the influence of institutions on entrepreneurship among Kuwaiti youth. It aims to capture the role played by institutions on youth entrepreneurship at the backdrop of a dampening ‘spirit’ for it. This research is currently very important due to various economic and geo-political factors leading to an economic downturn, which has led to the need for entrepreneurial ventures. It reviews and consolidates concepts and factors purported to facilitate and increase entrepreneurship for the benefit of the society and economy of Kuwait. This research uses a social constructionist approach to make sense of how institutions influence Kuwaiti youth in their quest to become entrepreneurs. It exposes institutional endorsement and legitimacy from formal and informal institutions. It shows the use of regulative, normative and cognitive dimensions and influences on entrepreneurial intentions and actions. This research shows how institutions interact with Kuwaiti youth and what role they play in the formulation of intentions and actions concerning entrepreneurship. A number of key formal and informal institutions have come to the fore that influence one another (in)directly as living entities, and likewise influence the youth (in)directly. The research contribution also shows that young people have to approach some key institutions and in return their desire to become entrepreneurs is strengthened or weakened depending on how institutions respond and what role they are willing to play in their lives.