• The Functional Dissection of Motion Processing Pathways in the Human Visual Cortex Using fMRI-Guided TMS

      McKeefry, Declan J.; Strong, Samantha Louise (University of BradfordDepartment of Optometry and Vision Science, 2015)
      Motion-selectivity in human visual cortex comprises a number of different cortical loci including V1, V2, V3A, V3B, hV5/MT+ and V6 (Wandell et al., 2007). This thesis sought to investigate the specific functions of V3A and sub-divisions of hV5/MT+ (TO-1 and TO-2) by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to transiently disrupt cortical activations within these areas during psychophysical tasks of motion perception. The tasks were chosen to coincide with previous non-human primate and human neuroimaging literature; translational, radial and rotational direction discrimination tasks and identification of the position of a focus of expansion. These results assert that TO-1 and TO-2 are functionally distinct subdivisions of hV5/MT+, as we have shown that both TO-1 and TO-2 are responsible for processing translational motion direction whilst only TO-2 is responsible for processing radial motion direction. In ipsilateral space, it was found that TO-1 and TO-2 both contribute to the processing of ipsilateral translational motion. Taken in a wider context, further results also suggested that these areas may form part of a network of cortical areas contributing to perception of self-motion (heading/egomotion), as TO-2 was not found to be responsible for processing the position of the central focus of expansion (imperative for self-direction). Instead, area V3A has been implicated as functionally responsible for processing this attribute of vision. Overall it is clear that TO-1, TO-2 and V3A have specific, distinct functions that contribute towards both parallel and serial motion processing pathways within the human brain.