• Balanced antennas for mobile handset applications. Simulation and Measurement of Balanced Antennas for Mobile Handsets, investigating Specific Absorption Rate when operated near the human body, and a Coplanar Waveguide alternative to the Balanced Feed.

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Excell, Peter S.; Alhaddad, A.G. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-03-26)
      The main objectives of this research are to investigate and design low profile antennas for mobile handsets applications using the balanced concept. These antennas are considered to cover a wide range of wireless standards such as: DCS (1710¿1880 MHz), PCS (1850¿1990 MHz), UMTS (1920¿2170 MHz), WLAN (2400¿2500 MHz and 5000 ¿ 5800 MHz) and UWB frequency bands. Various antennas are implemented based on built-in planar dipole with a folded arm structure. The performance of several designed antennas in terms of input return loss, radiation patterns, radiation efficiency and power gain are presented and several remarkable results are obtained. The measurements confirm the theoretical design concept and show reasonable agreement with computations. The stability performance of the proposed antenna is also evaluated by analysing the current distribution on the mobile phone ground plane. The specific absorption rate (SAR) performance of the antenna is also studied experimentally by measuring antenna near field exposure. The measurement results are correlated with the calculated ones. A new dual-band balanced antenna using coplanar waveguide structure is also proposed, discussed and tested; this is intended to eliminate the balanced feed network. The predicted and measured results show good agreement, confirming good impedance bandwidth characteristics and excellent dual-band performance. In addition, a hybrid method to model the human body interaction with a dual band balanced antenna structure covering the 2.4 GHz and 5.2 GHz bands is presented. Results for several test cases of antenna locations on the body are presented and discussed. The near and far fields were incorporated to provide a full understanding of the impact on human tissue. The cumulative distribution function of the radiation efficiency and absorbed power are also evaluated.