• Achieving excellence in services: an empirical study in the UAE banking sector.

      Ahmed, A.M.M.; Al-Marri, Khalid S. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2009-09-03)
      Banking services are perhaps the largest industry that caters to -the needs of various segments of the population reflecting the diverse Diasporas of the society. Moreover, perceived service quality tends to play a significant role in high involvement (high interaction between customers and service providers) industries like banks. Also, banks often have long-term business relationships with customers. In addition, the banking sector is large enough to capture and represent almost all the critical features of the customer-perceived service quality and the critical dimensions of excellence that the management may have to encounter, in order to effectively manage a service organisation. . However, there is considerable lack of literature with respect to service industry management, especially in the banking industry of developing economies. Therefore an analysis of banks in the UAE from a 'service-quality perspective' may sound interesting at this juncture. Such an investigation is vital for the bankers in order to enhance their business performance. The main objective of this research is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and explore CSFs for banks that succeed in the field of TQM and to identify marketoriented activities that are affected by the use of this approach. This research adapts an interdisciplinary approach that makes use of TQM, service quality, IT, and information systems literature. It takes a holistic view of TQM in the banking sector and considers the different stages of implementation and implications of the TQM. The research design involves a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies to incorporate: (1) TQM development; (2) the identification of key TQMsuccess factors commonly cited in the literature, and endorsed by practitioners and experts as important to effective TQM implementation; (3) an in-depth case studies. approach to understand how TQM processes, and critical success factors identified are addressed and implemented; and (4) the possible impact of TQM practices on efficiency. Furthermore, the research framework, which emerged from the literature search, is tested and validated by rigorous quantitative analysis using SPSS. The statistical analysis using Factor Analysis, Regression Analysis, One-Sample Test and Ranking Analysis to test a series of relationships and research constructs to provide solid support for the resulting relationships. i The study has identified twelve CSFs for the successful implementation of TQM: (1) Top Management Support, (2) Strategy, (3) Continuous Improvement, (4) Benchmarking, (5) Customer Focus, (6) Quality Department, (7) Human Resource Management, (8) Quality Technology,. (9) Service Design, (10) Employees, (11) Servicescapes, (12) Quality Systems. Furthermore, it *has been found that the organisational experiences of TQM implementation in-the service- sector in UAE are far from being mature. There is a lot of evidence with reference to the survey results and case studies presented in this study that TQM is still a new management concept, and is widely unknown. In many cases, there is some reluctance to introduce it. . The study has pointed out the CSFs for successful TQM implementation because it is vital for organisations to capture the minds of everybody, starting at the top and permeating throughout the whole organisation and beyond. The philosophy maintains that an organisation's primary objective is to enhance its ability to meet customer requirements by improving the quality of its services. People are the most important management resource and ultimate goal of business. TQM generally means a quest for excellence, creating the right attitudes and controls to make prevention of any possible errors, and optimise customer satisfaction by increased efficiency and effectiveness. Further, this study points out TQM as being an organisation-wide activity which has to reach every employee. Therefore, TQM has been an. approach for continuously improving the quality of services delivered through the participation at all levels and functions of the organisation. From this study, it is evident that the effectivetransformation to TQM has been linked to the extent to which firms implement certain CSFs. This study contributes to the emerging literature on TQM in banking sector in a number of specific ways: (1) It provides new theoretical grounds for studying TQM in banking sector in the context of CSFs that affect competition in the dynamic marketplace; (2) It computes and analyses the total quality management indices with respect to the 16 factors which have been developed from the literature for the banking industry as a whole; (3) It ascertains the level of TQM implementation in the UAE banking scene; (4) It Offers key insights on the criticality of the different TQM dimensions with respect to the banking sector in UAE and (5) It provides a foundation and proposals for future research and investigation.
    • Six Sigma Implementation in Middle East Organisations: An Empirical Study

      Hafeez, Khalid; Abdi, M. Reza; Ashri, Fahad H.
      In the last decade, the rapid economic development in the Middle East has encouraged organisations to implement modem quality management and strategic initiatives such as Six Sigma to ensure continuous improvement and achieved excellence. Six Sigma is a comprehensive business strategic quality programme and a systematic process improvement methodology for achieving, sustaining and maximising business success. The proper implementation of Six Sigma leads to breakthrough in profitability through ensuring quantum gains in product/service quality, customer satisfaction and productivity. This research presents an empirical exploratory and comparative study that aims and attempts to bridge the gap in the existing literature of Six Sigma by investigating the current implementation status of Six Sigma in organisations of three Middle East countries (namely, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and United Arab Emirates (UAE)). The reasons/benefits that encourage Middle East organisations to implement Six Sigma projects, the challenges commonly faced during implementation, the critical success factors (CSFs) for effective implementation and the organisations’ satisfaction with the implementation are investigated. The key issues of Six Sigma implementation and their criticality relating to the experience of the implementing process of Six Sigma projects are explored through an extensive review of the relevant literature. The data were collected from a combination of quantitative (232 questionnaires) and qualitative (74 semi-structured interviews) methodologies. The research covered 44 organisations from manufacturing and services sectors and large, small, and medium enterprises (SME) sizes, which have implemented or were implementing Six Sigma projects in the selected countries at the time of study. The study findings identified 15 significant reasons/benefits which encourages Middle East organisations to implement Six Sigma projects, 13 major challenges commonly faced during implementation, 19 CSFs for effective implementation and level of the organisations’ satisfaction with the implementation. Based on the research findings, a generic model for successful and effective implementation of Six Sigma in Middle East organisations is developed and proposed. The research concludes that Six Sigma implementation in Middle East organisations still in early stage, most organisations have outstanding opportunities to implement the Six Sigma project successfully and effectively with tangible and intangible benefits. In addition, all the responding organisations, which are actively implementing Six Sigma programme, regardless of their countries, sectors and sizes are highly satisfied with the implementation results. However, the research output highlights that an improvement culture must be developed and promoted throughout the organisation to ensure long-term benefit and sustainable success. Furthermore, the research makes recommendations on development of an implementation strategy in Middle East organisations. Finally, a number of suggestions are made for future research.