• Design and Modelling of Passive UHF RFID Tags for Energy Efficient Liquid Level Detection Applications. A study of various techniques in the design, modelling, optimisation and deployment of RFID reader and passive UHF RFID tags to achieve effective performance for liquid sensing applications

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; McEwan, Neil J.; See, C.H.; Atojoko, Achimugu A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Computing and Informatics, 2016)
      Sewer and oil pipeline spillage issues have become major causes of pollution in urban and rural areas usually caused by blockages in the water storage and drainage system, and oil spillage of underground oil pipelines. An effective way of avoiding this problem will be by deploying some mechanism to monitor these installations at each point in time and reporting unusual liquid activity to the relevant authorities for prompt action to avoid a flooding or spillage occurrence. This research work presents a low cost energy efficient liquid level monitoring technique using Radio Frequency Identification Technology. Passive UHF RFID tags have been designed, modelled and optimized. A simple rectangular tag, the P-shaped tag and S-shaped tag with UHF band frequency of operation (850-950 MHz) has been designed and modelled. Detailed parametric analysis of the rectangular tag is made and the optimised design results analysed and presented in HFSS and Matlab. The optimised rectangular tag designs are then deployed as level sensors in a gully pot. Identical tags were deployed to detect 4 distinct levels in alternate positions and a few inches in seperation distance within the gully pot height (Low, Mid, High and Ultra high). The radiation characteristic of tag sensors in deployment as modelled on HFSS is observed to show consistent performance with application requirements. An in-manhole chamber antenna for an underground communication system is analysed, designed, deployed and measured. The antenna covers dual-band impedance bandwidths (i.e. 824 to 960 MHz, and 1710 to 2170 MHz). The results show that the antenna prototype exhibits sufficient impedance bandwidth, suitable radiation characteristics, and adequate gains for the required underground wireless sensor applications. Finally, a Linearly Shifted Quadrifilar Helical Antenna (LSQHA) designed using Genetic Algorithm optimisation technique for adoption as an RFID reader antenna is proposed and investigated. The new antenna confirms coverage of the RFID bandwidth 860-960 MHz with acceptable power gain of 13.1 dBi.