• Genotoxic effects of nano and bulk forms of aspirin and ibuprofen on blood samples from prostate cancer patients compared to those from healthy individuals: The protective effects of NSAIDs against oxidative damage, quantification of DNA repair capacity and major signal transduction pathways in lymphocytes from healthy individuals and prostate cancer patients

      Anderson, Diana; Baumgartner, Adolf; Guma, Azeza S.S.
      Inhibiting inflammatory processes or eliminating inflammation represents a logical role in the suppression and treatment strategy of cancer. Several studies have shown that anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have promise as anticancer agents while reducing metastases and mortality. NSAIDs are seriously limited by side effects and their toxicity, which can become cumulative with their long-term administration for chemoprevention. The huge development in nanotechnology allows the drugs to exhibit novel and significantly improved properties compared to the large particles of the respective bulk compound, leading to more targeted therapy and reduced dosage. The overall aim of this thesis is to add to our understanding of cancer prevention and treatment through studying the genotoxicity mechanisms of NSAIDs agents in lymphocytes. In this study, the genotoxicity mechanisms of NSAID in bulk and nanoparticles forms a strategy to prevent and minimise the damage in human lymphocytes. Aspirin nano (ASP N) caused a significant decrease in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage compared to aspirin bulk (ASP B). Also, ibuprofen nano (IBU N) showed a significant reduction in DNA damage compared to ibuprofen bulk (IBU B). Micronuclei (MNi) decreased after ASP N, ASP B and IBU N in prostate cancer patients and healthy individuals, and the ibuprofen bulk showed a significant increase of MNi formation in lymphocytes from healthy and prostate cancer patients when compared to untreated lymphocytes from prostate cancer patients. In order to study the geno-protective properties of these drugs, the protective effect of NSAIDs and the quantification of the DNA repair capacity in lymphocytes was studied. ASP N was found to increase the DNA repair capacity and reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation significantly more than ASP B. Finally, the role of NSAIDs on some key regulatory signal transduction pathways in isolated lymphocyte cells was investigated by studying their effect on ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) mRNA. ATM mRNA significantly increased after treatment with ASP B, ASP N and IBU N. ATR expression also increased after treatment with IBU B and IBU N, but was only significant with IBU N. These findings indicate that a reduction in particle size had an impact on the reactivity of the drug, further emphasising the potential of nanoparticles as improvement to current treatment options.