• Poverty of Indigenous People in Taiwan ¿ rethinking agency, embedded disposition, role of family and institution in the study of poverty.

      Cleaver, Frances D.; Morvaridi, Behrooz; Kuwazawa, Satoshi (University of BradfordDevelopment and Economic Studies, 2010-03-10)
      Recently, the issue of poverty amongst indigenous people has become a significant topic in literature on social policy and development studies. The literature mainly looks at this issue in terms of an unequal and one-sided relationship between the mainstream society and an indigenous minority group. This thesis seeks insights into the more diversified circumstances and experiences of poverty amongst indigenous people. The following questions are addressed: (1) Why and how is the poverty of indigenous people reproduced over time and space? (2) How can we understand patterns of differentiation between indigenous people? (3) What is the balance between structural opportunity and constraint in the lives of indigenous people? (4) To what extent do people exercise agency to cope with or overcome their poverty situations? The thesis adopts an ethnographic approach, including participant observation and interviews in four villages of Taiwanese indigenous people. It explores the connections between poverty dynamics and diversified patterns of socio-economic action amongst indigenous people. Hogget and Greener¿s model of agency, which contains the essential theoretical views of Giddens (the ability of agents to act) and Bourdieu (the embedded corporeal disposition of human agents) are used to make sense of this exploration. The thesis finds that the actions of indigenous people as human agents are differentiated. Actions are not only motivated by strategic plans and emotions but are also influenced by the agents¿ socio-economic positions, such as their occupations and education and those of their parents. The differentiated socio-economic activities of agents, in turn, have a strong effect on the stratification of their living standards.
    • 'We’re All Getting Older You See, and Things Do Change, Don’t They?’ An Ethnographic Study of Disruption and Continuity in the Daily Lives of Couples Living with Dementia and Co-morbidities

      Downs, Murna G.; Small, Neil A.; De Waal, Denise
      Most people with dementia live in the community with a family member, commonly a spouse. Together they engage in identity redefinition to maintain continuity. Many people living with dementia also have co-morbidities. The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of the influence of co-morbidities on the lived experience of couples and to provide knowledge to improve services. This had not been researched before. Drawing on the dialectic relationship between the body, habitus, environment and common sense from Bourdieu’s theory of practice (1977; 1990) combined with identity theory as described by Burke and Stetts (2009) I conducted an ethnographic study with five couples over a six-month period. The resulting data were analysed using a framework approach and are presented using case studies to illustrate key points. Drawing up on the data I developed an identity perspective which provides a better understanding of these couples’ daily life experiences taking into consideration the contextuality of people’s multiple identities, experiences, care and support needs and their interaction with the environment and community. My findings illustrate how people with dementia and co-morbidities and their spouses negotiate their identity in daily life in order to continue their daily life routine and cope with health conditions. Furthermore, these identity negotiations influence the acceptance of the diagnoses of dementia, the access to care, services and information and the experience of dementia, stigma and co-morbidities in daily life. Implications include a presentation of the limitations of current concepts of embodied selfhood and the Aging in Place policy for people with dementia. It points to the potential of the identity perspective to shape policy, services and care practice consistent with couples’ lived experience and their needs and preferences.