• Crystal engineering, Bio Pharmaceutics and Cell biology of active pharmaceutical ingredient (drug) nanoparticles. Formation and cell interaction of hydrocortisone and prednisolone nanoparticles.

      Blagden, Nicholas; Denyer, Morgan C.T.; de Matas, Marcel; Zghebi, Salwa S. (University of BradfordThe Institute of Pharmaceutical Innovation/ School of Pharmacy - School of Life Sciences, 2011-11-09)
      Nanotechnology applications have emerged enormously in recent times. Of particular interest is that area that overlaps the areas of nanotechnology, biology and medicine: nanomedicine. One advantage of nanomedicines is it that it can be used as an enabling technology by pharmaceutical researchers and industry to overcome issues associated with the low bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. In the first part of the current study, nanosuspensions of two of hydrophobic steroid drugs: hydrocortisone and prednisolone were produced. Nanosuspensions were prepared using a bottom-up approach: the anti-solvent precipitation method using microfluidic reactors. Surface modification was carried out on these nanosuspensions using cationic surfactants to obtain nanoparticles with different levels of surface positive charge as indicated by ¿-potential values. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the prepared nanoparticles. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were also used to characterize hydrocortisone nanoparticles. In the second part, cellular uptake of both coated and uncoated nanoparticles by HaCaT keratinocytes cell line was examined and indicated by quantifying the anti- inflammatory effect of nanoparticles on the LPS-induced inflammation. Also, TEM was employed to evaluate the cellular uptake of hydrocortisone nanoparticles. Results showed higher ant-inflammatory effect of coated nanoparticles over uncoated nanoparticles. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effect of coated nanoparticles was correlated to the degree of positive surface charge.
    • The effects of TGF-β on the behaviour of a keratinocyte cell line: implications in wound repair

      Denyer, Morgan C.T.; Youseffi, Mansour; Berends, Rebecca F. (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2012-02-29)
      TGF-β isoforms are important signalling molecules in wound repair in the skin. Transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3) has been implicated in scarless healing. In both animal and human models the application of exogenous TGF-β3 causes a reduction in the inflammatory response and improves the architecture of the neodermis. Research into the influence of TGF-β on scarring has tended to focus on fibroblasts. However, keratinocytes play a major role in scarring both indirectly, as a result of their influence over the behaviour of fibroblasts and also by directly influencing wound contraction. Thus, experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of TGF-β3 on the behaviours of a keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Incubation with TGF-β3 increased cell spreading and appeared to reduce cell-surface contacts indicated by both SPR imaging and a detachment assay. TGF-β3 also caused a decreased cell alignment response to microcontact printed protein patterns, in part due to the deposition of laminin which is associated with the TGF-β induced cell migration. There is evidence that TGF-β isoforms differentially influence the outcome of wound healing. Similar to the results produce following addition of exogenous TGF-β3, the neutralisation of TGF-β1 and 2 has been shown to reduce scar formation in the adult wounds. During reepithelialisation keratinocytes experience a dynamic environment. Both extracellular matrix proteins and growth factors influence the progression of wound repair which includes both cell migration and proliferation. Few studies have examined collective cell behaviour in response to TGF-β isoforms and ECM coated substrates. Thus both wound closure and cell proliferation assays were conducted for different ECM proteins fibronectin, laminin and collagen type I and for TGF-β1, 2 and 3. Rates of wound closure were significantly reduced on laminin coated substrates while cell proliferation rates were increased. TGF-β2 and 3 induced significant increases in wound closure rates. This appeared to correspond with an increase in the number of cells independently migrating out from the wound margins. Only TGF-β3 caused a significant decrease in cell proliferation over a 4 day period. Laminin332 deposition is central to the reepithelialisation process and is known to be induced in response to TGF-β. Thus experiments were carried out to investigate HaCaT cell laminin332 deposition in response to TGF-β1, 2 and 3. Both an immunofluorescence staining technique and an ELISA based semi-quantification method was used. Following 4 day incubation all TGF-β isoforms significantly increased laminin332 deposition; however TGF-β2 and 3 caused the most significant increases. Integrin receptors enable cell-matrix interactions during wound repair. TGF-β is known to influence the expression of integrin subunits. Thus, experiments were carried out to compare the influence of each TGF-β isoform on the expression of subunits α3, α2, α5, β1 and β4. All TGF-β isoforms significantly increased all subunit expression. TGF-β3 caused the most significant increase in β4 and both TGF-β2 and 3 caused the most significant increase in α2. While there were differences in cell responses to each isoforms, TGF-β3 did not stand out from the other two isoforms. Interestingly, TGF-β2 shared more similarities with TGF-β3 than it did with TGF-β1, in its role in enhancing wound closure and LN332 deposition. These comparative studies have shown that differences exist in the way TGF-β isoforms influence HaCaT cell behaviour, namely migration, laminin deposition and integrin expression.