• The effect of oxidative stress in lymphocytes from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and various cancer states compared with healthy control individuals.

      Anderson, Diana; Najafzadeh, Mojgan (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, 2012-01-11)
      In the present investigation peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and different cancer states were treated with various agents and compared with lymphocytes from healthy control individuals (HCI) treated in the same way and measured in the Comet assay. For inflammatory bowel disease, patient¿s responses in IBD patients treated with H2O2 were higher than in HCI and crohn¿s patients (CD) were found to have higher responses than Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. The responses for all IBD and HCI were all reduced in the presence of chaga mushroom extract which behaved in an antioxidant manner. A second group of IBD patients were treated with the heterocyclic amine (food mutagen), IQ and H2O2 and responses were reduced in the presence of the flavonoids, quercetin and epicatechin and compared with HCI similarity treated. In all cells responses were reduced with flavonoids and again CD had higher responses than the UC patients and IBD patients higher than HCI. The responses with CD and UC were that confirmed in two independent studies with IBD, one with chaga mushroom extract and the other with flavonoids. Peripheral lymphocytes from malignant melanoma and suspected melanoma patients and colon cancer and polyposis patients were compared to the lymphocytes from HCI and treated with UVA. There were differential sensitivities when measured in the micronucleus and Comet assays. The cancer patients had higher responses than those in the precancerous states and they in turn were higher than responses in HCI. In all the studies, untreated baseline DNA damage values were also higher in IBD and cancer patients and pre-cancerous patients than HCIs. This would suggest that baseline frequencies of different diseases compared to controls could be an important biomarker in the diagnosis of pre-cancers and early stage cancers. Also peripheral lymphocytes are a useful surrogate for cancers and pre-cancerous disease states since, blood is present in all organs and tissues and DNA is basically the same in all cells.
    • Molecular mechanisms of myricetin bulk and nano forms mediating genoprotective and genotoxic effects in lymphocytes from pre-cancerous and myeloma patients

      Anderson, Diana; Gopalan, Rajendran C.; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Akhtar, Shabana
      Cancer is one of the leading causes of death across the globe which needs appropriate and cost-effective treatment. Several recent studies have suggested that dietary intake of various flavonoids such as myricetin have a protective effect against different types of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was conducted to investigate the genoprotective and genotoxic effects of myricetin nano and bulk forms on the lymphocytes from pre-cancerous and multiple myeloma cancer patients compared to those from healthy individuals. Also, to investigate the protective potential of myricetin bulk and nano against the oxidative stress produced in vitro by 2- amino-1-methyl-6 phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine and reactive oxygen species- induced DNA damage using the Comet assay, micronucleus assay, cellular reactive oxygen species and glutathione detection assay, Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. Lymphocytes from the patient groups showed significantly higher levels of basal DNA damage compared to the lymphocytes from healthy individuals which was observed throughout the in vitro treatment. Myricetin in both forms has not induced any significant DNA damage in all of the investigative groups at selective lower concentrations; in fact, the results demonstrate a reduction in DNA damage upon treating with myricetin nano in lymphocytes from pre-cancerous patients demonstrated by significant reduction in micronuclei formation in mononucleated cells. DNA repair capacity of myricetin bulk and nano was determined by co-treating the drugs with hydrogen peroxide. Myricetin significantly reduced the oxidative stress related damage caused by hydrogen peroxide, where myricetin nano seemed to be more effective employing the Comet assay. In the presence of myricetin bulk and nano, the damaging effects of 2- amino-1-methyl-6 phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine were considerably decreased, where myricetin nano was more effective. This could be because nanoparticles have a larger surface area which could improve their reactivity and also the reduction in size of the particles could improve the anti-cancer properties of this compound. Myricetin has shown genoprotective and anti-oxidant effects by demonstrating the potential to reduce DNA damage caused by over-production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. It has also shown anti-cancer potential in the lymphocytes from multiple myeloma patients by regulating the apoptosis related proteins, dependent on oxidative stress. Therefore, this study suggests that myricetin supplementation in our regular diet with enhanced bioavailability could have potential health beneficial effects and possibly protect against various diseases including cancer.