• E-banking operational risk assessment. A soft computing approach in the context of the Nigerian banking industry.

      Cullen, Andrea J.; Neagu, Daniel; Ochuko, Rita E. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2013-12-02)
      This study investigates E-banking Operational Risk Assessment (ORA) to enable the development of a new ORA framework and methodology. The general view is that E-banking systems have modified some of the traditional banking risks, particularly Operational Risk (OR) as suggested by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in 2003. In addition, recent E-banking financial losses together with risk management principles and standards raise the need for an effective ORA methodology and framework in the context of E-banking. Moreover, evaluation tools and / or methods for ORA are highly subjective, are still in their infant stages, and have not yet reached a consensus. Therefore, it is essential to develop valid and reliable methods for effective ORA and evaluations. The main contribution of this thesis is to apply Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) and Tree Augmented Naïve Bayes (TAN) classifier as standard tools for identifying OR, and measuring OR exposure level. In addition, a new ORA methodology is proposed which consists of four major steps: a risk model, assessment approach, analysis approach and a risk assessment process. Further, a new ORA framework and measurement metrics are proposed with six factors: frequency of triggering event, effectiveness of avoidance barriers, frequency of undesirable operational state, effectiveness of recovery barriers before the risk outcome, approximate cost for Undesirable Operational State (UOS) occurrence, and severity of the risk outcome. The study results were reported based on surveys conducted with Nigerian senior banking officers and banking customers. The study revealed that the framework and assessment tools gave good predictions for risk learning and inference in such systems. Thus, results obtained can be considered promising and useful for both E-banking system adopters and future researchers in this area.