Browsing University of Bradford eTheses by Subject "; 17ß-estradiol"
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Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water over nanoscale powdered titanium dioxide. The photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds in water (Reactive Orange 16, Triclocarbon, Clopyralid and Estrogens (estrone, 17ß-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol)) was studied; the reaction kinetics and the effect of the operating parameters on the performance of the system were determined; a comparison with other advanced oxidation processes (O3, H2O2, UV) was also made.Organic contaminants from industrial and/or domestic effluents may be harmful to humans directly or indirectly by degrading the quality of the aquatic environment. Consequently these contaminants must be reduced to levels that are not harmful to humans and the environment before disposal. Chemical, physical and biological methods exist for the removal of these pollutants from effluents. Among the available chemical methods, heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation has been found particularly effective in removing a large number of persistent organics in water. In this study, photocatalytic degradation was explored for the removal of reactive azo-dye (textile dye), triclocarban (disinfectant), clopyralid (herbicide) and three endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (estrone, 17ß-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) from synthetic effluents. The major factors affecting the photocatalytic processes including the initial concentration of the target compounds, the amount of catalyst, the light intensity, the type of catalyst, the electron acceptor, the irradiation time and the pH were studied. Other oxidation techniques including (O3, H2O2, UV) were also studied. Generally UV light is used in combination with titanium dioxide, as photocatalyst, to generate photoinduced charge separation leading to the creation of electron-hole pairs. The holes act as electron acceptors hence the oxidation of organics occur at these sites. These holes can also lead to the formation of hydroxyl radicals which are also effective oxidants capable of degrading the organics. The results obtained in this study indicated that photolysis (i.e. UV only) was found to have no effect on the degradation of reactive azo-dye (RO16). However, complete photocatalytic degradation of 20 mg/L (3.24×10-2 mM) RO16 was achieved in 20 minutes in the presence of 1g/L TiO2 Degussa P25 at pH 5.5. Comparison between various types of catalysts (i.e. Degussa P25, VP Aeroperl, Hombifine N) gave varied results but Degussa P25 was the most effective photocatalyst hence it was selected for this study. For RO16 the optimum catalyst concentration was 0.5 g/L TiO2 with initial concentration of 20 mg/L RO16. It was found that the disappearance of RO16 satisfactorily followed the pseudo first-order kinetics according to Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model. The rate constant was k= 0.0928 mol/min. Photodegradation of TCC was studied in 70%v acetonitrile: 30%v water solutions. UV light degraded TCC effectively and the reaction rates increased with decreasing initial concentration of TCC. UV/TiO2 gave unsatisfactory degradation of triclocarban (TCC) since only 36% were removed in 60 minutes with initial concentration of TCC 20 mg/L. The degradation of clopyralid and the EDCs was studied using three oxidation systems UV/TiO2, UV/H2O2 and O3. Complete degradation of clopyralid (3,6-DCP) was achieved with UV/TiO2 in about 90 minutes at an optimum catalyst concentration of 1g/L. Zero-order kinetics was found to describe the first stage of the photocatalytic reaction in the concentration range 0.078-0.521 mM. At pH 5 the rate constant was 2.09×10-6-4.32×10-7 M.s-1.Complete degradation of all the three EDCs was achieved with UV/H2O2 in 60 minutes at catalyst concentration of (2.94×10-2 M). On the other hand complete degradation of the EDCs was achieved in just 2 minutes with ozonation. For high concentration EDCs, TiO2/UV gave low efficiency of degradation as compared with ozone and H2O2/UV. First-order kinetics was found to describe the photocatalytic reaction of the EDCs.