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  • Applying a new technique, the interferon gamma liposomal delivery system to improve drug delivery in the treatment of Lung Cancer

    Anderson, Diana; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Alhawamdeh, Maysa F.J. (University of BradfordSchool of Chemistry & Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2021)
    Lung cancer is one of the main causes of death worldwide, with most patients suffering from an advanced unresectable or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. The mortality trends are mostly related to patterns of tobacco use, specifically from cigarettes. Tobacco is the basic etiological agent found as a consequence of the inhalation of tobacco smoke. Published data show the use of interferons (IFNs) in the treatment of lung tumours due to their potential in displaying antiproliferative, anti-angiogenic, immunoregulatory, and proapoptotic effects. Type1 IFNs have been employed as treatments for many types of cancer, both for haematological cancers and solid tumours. The IFN-γ (naked) functions as an anticancer agent against various forms of cancer. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the genoprotective and genotoxic effects of IFN-γ liposome (nano) on 42 blood samples from lung cancer patients, compared to the same sample size from healthy individuals. The effectiveness of IFN- γ liposome against oxidative stress was also evaluated in this study. A concentration of 100U/ml of IFN-γ liposome was used to treat the lymphocytes in: Comet and micronucleus assays, Comet repair, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were based on a preliminary test for the optimal dose. The lymphocytes from lung cancer patients presented with higher DNA damage levels than those of healthy individuals. IFN-γ liposome was not found to induce any DNA damage in the lymphocytes. Also, it caused a significant reduction in DNA damage in the lymphocytes from lung cancer patients in; Comet, Comet repair and micronucleus assays. Furthermore, the 100U/ml of IFN-γ liposome significantly reduced the oxidative stress caused by H2O2 and appeared to be effective in both groups using the Comet and micronucleus assays. Results from; Comet, Comet repair and micronucleus assays were consistent. The data obtained indicated that IFN-γ in both forms (naked INF-γ and INF-γ nano-liposome) may potentially be effective for the treatment of lung cancer and showed the ability of IFN-γ liposome to reduce the DNA damage more than the naked form. The IFN-γ in both forms has also shown anti-cancer potential in the lymphocytes from lung cancer patients by regulating the expression of p53, p21, Bcl-2 at mRNA and protein levels by up-regulating the p53 and p21 to mediate cell cycle arrest and DNA repair in lung cancer patients. The findings of this study are consistent with the view that the naked IFN-γ and liposome could have a significant role in cancer treatment, including lung cancer.
  • An Investigation into the Role of Local Government in Enhancing the Public Participation in Sindh, Pakistan: Policy and Practice in Service Delivery

    Analoui, Farhad; Arora, Rashmi; Ali, Aijaz (University of BradfordPeace Studies and International Development, Faculty of Management Law and Social Sciences, 2020)
    It is generally recognised that the primary role of the decentralise local governance is to establish closer relationship between rural communities and the governing authorities in local development. In Pakistan, the system of local governments has always been introduced by the non-democratic forces. The decentralised governments have often been discontinued by the civilian governments of Pakistan. This study has sought to examine the role of the decentralised local governance in initiating the local community participation in local development in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. This thesis responds the questions about the initiatives taken by the local government authorities and the genuine local community participation in local community development programs. It further explores the main barriers to local public participation in the local policy making and implementation in Sindh. The findings suggest that the challenges to participation have been ever increasing. The military establishment’s hold on the central state policies has weakened the public empowering national laws. Furthermore, the local government’s role to initiate meaningful local community involvement in development projects of the decentralised local governance has been engrossed by the hold of feudal lords, corruption, favouritism, and the attitude of indifference on the part of provincial and national governments. Thus, it is argued that, in such dominant military state and feudal lords’ system, there is no positive link between the local government reforms and the democratic participation in the local decision-making. Based on these findings, a realistic model for participation is introduced and relevant implications are considered.
  • Factors affecting neuropsychological assessment in a group of South Asian older adults

    Walters, Elizabeth R.; Lesk, Valerie E.; Parveen, F. Choudhry (University of BradfordFaculty of Management Law and Social Sciences, 2021)
    The accuracy of neuropsychological assessment is critical in the diagnosis of cognitive impairments in older adults. However, existing neuropsychological tests may not be suitable for minority populations. This thesis aimed to address this issue by recruiting cognitively-healthy South Asian older adults and assessing cognitive function in this group. Results showed that typically used assessments, despite being translated, were not suitable for this cohort. Furthermore, skills required for test completion such as mathematics and writing/hand dexterity (which are related to education levels) influenced test scores. Therefore, new assessments of general cognitive function and associative memory were developed to improve the accuracy of neuropsychological test scores. The new tests were not affected by education and they achieved high internal and test re-test reliability. Time of day (TOD) that testing takes place is also known to affect cognition. Interestingly, no TOD effects were observed in this cohort. It was hypothesised that engagement in the daily five Islamic prayers may have contributed to this lack of a TOD effect. However, the results did not confirm this. The thesis then looked at overall prayer engagement and cognition. Results showed that engagement in the daily five prayers and Quran recitation significantly increased scores on assessments of processing speed. This thesis demonstrates that accurately assessing cognition in South Asian older adults is challenging and that the cognitive tests used must be suitable for this cohort. Interesting findings emerged for prayer engagement which may have wider implications for the field of cognitive reserve.
  • New Media and Social Movements. How the Indigenous People of Biafra Movement Has Used the Internet to Mobilise for an Independent Biafran State

    Goodall, Mark D.; Reeve, Carlton; Thornton, Karen D.; Nwofe, Emmanuel S. (University of BradfordSchool of Media, Design and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2019)
    This study has examined the implications of the internet for the IPOB movement, focusing on the extent to which it has empowered the movement to engage in collective action mobilisation, enhance identity construction, framing and discourses for an independent Biafran state against multiple forms of state repressions. The thesis adopted a flexible approach that incorporated three level analysis including a macro-level analysis, which looked at the socio political and institutional environment; a meso-level, which examined the organisational infrastructure; and a micro-level exploring how the social movement made sense of their reality. The thesis addresses the debate between technology and society, and between the agency and political opportunity structures in Nigeria. It discussed the radical and agnostic democratic potential of the internet for African social movements and the dialectic between Biafra activism and the socio-political rootedness of Nigerian democracy. This approach allowed for providing analogies and new perspectives from the research and interpreting implications of human action. The thesis has found inconsistent, sometimes contradicting, data on the implication of internet technology for the IPOB movement. While there is some clear and robust evidence suggesting that new media technology has enhanced the movement's capabilities to organise, coordinate and mobilise for Biafran cause on many levels. The study reveals some severe limitations in the appropriation of internet technology in IPOB’s collective action objectives. The implication of the findings is discussed.
  • Investigation and Design of New, Efficient and Compact Load Modulation Amplifiers for 5G Base Stations. Design, Simulation, Implementation and Measurements of Radio Frequency Power Amplifiers Using Active Load Modulation Technique for More Compact and Efficient 5G Base Stations Amplifiers

    Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Noras, James M.; McEwan, Neil J.; Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2020)
    High efficiency is an essential requirement for any system, where the energy can be saved with full retention of system performance. The power amplifier in modern mobile communications system consumes most of the supplied power through the dissipated power and the required cooling systems. However, as new services were added as features for the developed mobile generations, the required data rate has increased to fulfil the new requirements. In this case, the data should be sent with the allocated bandwidth, so complex modulation schemes are used to utilise the available bandwidth efficiently. Nevertheless, the modulated signal will have a Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) which increases as the modulation complexity is increasing. In this case, the power amplifier should be backed off and designed to provide good linearity and efficiency over high PAPR. Among the efficiency enhancement techniques, the Doherty technique (Load modulation technique) is the simplest one, where no additional circuity nor signal processing is required. In this work, the theory of load modulation amplifiers is investigated through two asymmetrical Doherty Power Amplifiers (DPA) targeting 3.3-3.5 GHz were designed and fabricated using two transistors (25 W and 45 W). In addition, more compact load modulation amplifiers targeting sub 6-GHz bandwidth of 5G specifically 3.4-3.8 GHz is discussed including the theory of implementing these amplifiers, where different amplifier capabilities are explored. Each amplifier design was discussed in detail, in which the input and output matching networks were designed and tested in addition to the design of the stability circuit to make sure that the amplifier is stable and working according to the specified requirements. The fabricated circuits were evaluated practically using the available instrument test, whereas Microwave Office software was used for the simulation purpose, each amplifier was designed separately, where all the designed amplifiers were able to provide the targeted efficiency at different back-off power points. Besides, some additional factors that affect the designed load modulation amplifiers such as the effect of the harmonics at the back-off and mismatching the amplifier is discussed.
  • Investigating the factors affecting the net benefits and change in user behaviour in technology push scenarios in Smart cities

    Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Alkhaldi, Afnan N.M.N.A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2021)
    Purpose – The aim of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the net benefits and change in user behaviour in a technology push scenario in Smart Cities. Design/methodology/approach –The research was conducted using a quantitative approach. Hence, quantitative data was obtained by devising and distributing a questionnaire adapted from the literature to serve the purpose of this research. Data was analysed by using SmartPLS software, since this tool allowed for the creation of a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Contributions –The research is expected to help foster an understanding of the factors affecting citizens’ satisfaction with technology-supporting smart cities. The focus of this research was on the scenario where technology was introduced by the government to support the development of smart cities, and where citizens ‘do not have a choice’ and are ‘pushed’ to use them. The research contributes a model for assessing the role of satisfaction in enhancing the net benefits of smart city technologies on the lives of citizens, as well as the change in individuals’ behaviour towards smart city technologies when they are ‘pushed’ for use. The findings provided insights to enable policy makers to implement smart cities in developing countries while ensuring the satisfaction of the users. Originality/value – The originality of this research is centred around determining how satisfied citizens are with smart cities and the net benefit of smart cities within a developing country (Kuwait) context. The research is also unique in that it examines the role of citizens’ satisfaction in changing their behaviour towards ‘push’ technology within smart cities. Theoretical Contributions – This study examined the factors that led to acceptance of smart cities in Kuwait. Hence, this study used the theories related to user acceptance of technology and added to its trust in provider. Previous studies have examined trust as a broad concept. Moreover, this study incorporated the push theory and also examined the change in user behavior, which was not examined in earlier studies.
  • The effect of RAN inhibition on human colorectal cancer cells (CRC)

    McLean, Samantha L.; Kantamneni, Sriharsha; El-Tanani, Mohamed; Morgan, Richard; Elrewey, Hussein A.S. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2020)
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most widespread and fourth most fatal malignancy disease. The CRC from a primary site can spread to other tissues, forming secondary tumours. CRC can metastasise to the liver through the effect of K-Ras and Pten mutation (Mt.) (Abbas et al. 2020). This study aimed to assess the hypothesis that the Ran inhibitor mebendazole MBZ reduces cell invasion and metastasis of CRC. I have investigated MBZ effect on the CRC isogenic human cell lines with specific mutations (HCT-116 K-Ras, DLD-1 K-Ras and Pten deletion and wild type HCT-116 and DKO-3. I used qRT-PCR and western blotting to identify expression levels of various genes and signalling molecules after treatment with 0.5 mM MBZ. In addition, several assays were performed to investigate MBZ effect on biological properties of the cells such as proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation. MBZ downregulated Ran and induced apoptosis through inhibition of Bcl-2 expression as well as inducing caspase -3, -7, -9 and PARP cleavage. Moreover, MBZ showed an effect on immune response by down regulating C5a, IL-1ß and IL-1α analysed at mRNA level. When treated with MBZ, the migration, invasion and colony formation abilities of HCT-116 K-Ras Mt., DLD-1 K-Ras Mt. and HCT-116 Pten-/- were significantly reduced compared to a control treated cell line. This was also the case with wild type cell lines such as HCT-116 and DKO-3. Furthermore, signalling molecules such as p- Erk 1/2 and p- Akt were upregulated after MBZ treatment and exert inhibition on Akt 1/2/3 and VEGFR1/2 mRNA levels. In conclusion; MBZ which is a Ran inhibitor, has significantly reduced proliferation, colony formation, and migration in colorectal cell lines with K-Ras and Pten gene deletion compared to wild type cells in a dose-dependent manner. This work paves the way to clinical validation of MBZ as a combination therapy for reducing the invasion of CRC cells.
  • Overcoming wound healing complications following radiotherapy in human breast dermal fibroblasts, through the influence of preadipocytes from the stromal vascular fraction

    Thornton, M. Julie; Riches-Suman, Kirsten; Trevor, Lucy V. (University of BradfordPlastic Surgery and Burns Research Unit, Centre for Skin Sciences, 2021)
    Radiotherapy has major therapeutic benefits for cancer patients, but ionizing radiation causes damage of surrounding healthy tissues with poor wound healing a common side effect. Therefore, further oncoplastic, reconstructive surgery is challenging and often problematic. Current research models use normal human dermal fibroblasts irradiated in vitro to mimic radiation damage, but this is not comparable to ionising radiation and only measures acute changes. Since radiotherapy may induce epigenetic changes leading to alterations in dermal fibroblast phenotype, the first aim of this study was to compare fibroblasts cultured from irradiated skin with non-irradiated skin. As mesenchymal stem cells isolated from adipose tissue may offer beneficial effects in the regenerative capacity of irradiated tissue, the second part of this study was to compare those cultured from non-irradiated and irradiated breast tissue. Histological changes in the structural organisation of breast tissue in situ from donors exposed to radiotherapy was compared to untreated breast. Primary cultures of dermal fibroblasts from irradiated and non-irradiated breast skin were established and comparisons quantitated in proliferation (CyQuant), metabolism (Alamar Blue), migration (scratch-wound assay), collagen production (Sircol), levels of proteases and protease inhibitors (human protease/protease inhibitor array) and gene expression of COL1A1, COL3A1, MMP1, MMP2, TIMP1 and PPAR-γ mRNA (qPCR). Cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were cultured and characterised by immunocytochemistry and compared to human preadipocytes sourced commercially. The secretion of FGF, adiponectin and VEGF by the preadipocyte and the SVF mesenchymal cells was compared and the ability of their secretome to modulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, metabolism and migration was evaluated. Radiotherapy caused extensive disorganisation of the reticular dermis and flattening of the epidermal-dermal junction. Dermal fibroblasts cultured from irradiated skin had a pronounced spindle shaped morphology with longer thinner projections and took approximately twice as long to explant and grow. They had a lower proliferative and higher basal metabolic rate and did not respond to FGF-2. While they secreted similar amounts of total collagen they demonstrated distinct differences in proteolytic enzyme and protease inhibitor expression. This is the first report to culture cells from the SVF of irradiated breast tissue. The cells expressed the preadipocyte markers CD10, CD73 and CD105 and no CD45 (negative marker). SVF cells cultured displayed a typical ASC fibroblastoid morphology. Analysis of the secretome identified the presence of FGF, adiponectin and VEGF, while functional analysis demonstrated a stimulatory effect on normal dermal fibroblast migration, although irradiated dermal fibroblasts were unresponsive. Radiotherapy induces long term, detrimental changes in breast skin. This is the first quantitative characterisation of dermal fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells from the SVF, subjected to ionising radiation in situ. Changes in their phenotype that alter their function will impact on wound healing. Further characterisation of these cells may explain their dysfunctional behaviour, and lead to therapies to reverse or reduce this deleterious side-effect and significantly improve treatments facilitating wound healing following radiation injury.
  • Three Essays on the Role of Corporate Governance in Firms' Spending on R&D and Controlling Earnings-Management Practices: The Role of Independent Directors’ Tenure and Network in Controlling Earnings-Management Practices; The Impact of Board Diversity on the Corporate Propensity to R&D Spending; The Association between Directors’ Multiple-Board Sittings, Tenure, Financial Expertise, and R&D Spending

    Akbar, Saeed; Mollah, S.; Trzeciakiewicz, Agnieszka; Asad, Muhammad (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2021)
    This thesis comprises three research essays. The study documents empirical evidence around the research themes by analysing a sample of the UK’s listed non-financial firms from 2005 to 2018. It applied panel data analysis (fixed or random effects) techniques and the potential endogeneity issue is controlled by using the two-step system, GMM. Earnings-management research holds that manipulating a firm's real activities is more damaging to its long-term growth and value than accruals manipulation. Therefore, by building on agency theory and emphasising board monitoring, first essay investigates the role of independent directors’ tenure and connection to several boards in controlling real earnings management (REM). This study finds that independent directors elected to board before appointment of current CEO are negatively associated with the level of REM. Furthermore, this research provides evidence that REM is higher in those firms whose INDs are connected to several boards at a time. Though economically insignificant in most of the models, this research also shows that the association between INDs’ tenure and REM varies with the phases of their tenure. Directors in the early stage of their tenure are observed as being less effective in controlling REM. However, as INDs’ tenure grows, they employ better oversight over management's conduct, thereby reducing REM. Contrary to this, the extended tenure of INDs is associated with higher REM. These results collectively suggest that the board monitoring role protects the stakes of shareholders/stakeholders by constraining REM; when INDs are free from the influence of CEO, they are not over-committed due to their presence on several boards, and they have moderate board tenure which is neither too short nor too long. Furthermore, drawing on collective contributions and group performance perspectives, second essay explores the role of board diversity in the firm’s R&D investment decisions. Additionally, building on a fault-line argument about a team's demographic attributes, the current research decomposes the impact of demographic and cognitive diversity on R&D spending. The research observes a positive relationship between board diversity and the level of R&D spending. Moreover, this research documents that cognitive diversity is positively associated with R&D investment. However, demographic diversity has an insignificant relationship with firms’ spending on R&D projects. Further, this study confirms that demographic diversity negatively moderates the relationship between cognitive diversity and R&D investment. These results suggest that the board's attributes as a group carry the significance to influence the decisions having strategic importance. The findings on the sub-dimensions of board diversity imply that board functional/cognitive diversity is more relevant to corporate decisions and outcomes than is demographic diversity. Based on the monitoring perspective (agency theory) and resource provision view (resource dependency theory), third essay investigates the role of independent directors’ specific attributes in the corporate propensity to R&D investment. The study documents a positive association between INDs’ moderate (median) tenure and the firm’s spending on R&D projects, but early and extended tenure is observed as being insignificant. INDs with a presence on three or fewer boards are observed to promote R&D investment. However, INDs sitting on more than three boards negatively affect the firm’s propensity to invest in R&D initiatives. Financially expert INDs are negatively associated with corporate R&D investments, suggesting that such directors may resist funding these projects beyond optimal risk level because of their expertise. These results suggest that INDs’ monitoring and advising competence improves as they spend time on the firm’s board, but that extended tenure is counterproductive as it impairs INDs’ impartiality. Furthermore, INDs’ capital (resources) accruing from connection to multiple boards is only beneficial for the firm’s strategic decisions if their monitoring role is not compromised because of their over-commitment (busyness).
  • Exploring the case of adopting Lean to potentially enhance the flow of patients with diabetes in Primary Healthcare Centres in Kuwait. Exploring the case of adopting Lean to potentially enhance the flow of patients with diabetes in Primary Healthcare Centres in Kuwait

    Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Faisal, Muhammad; Kelendar, Hisham (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2021)
    Similar to other healthcare systems worldwide, Kuwait faces challenges of increased demand and cost while trying to operate with constrained resources. There are some data suggesting that Lean methodology, first used by Japanese car manufacturer Toyota, could improve system efficiency or flow by waste elimination, may be useful in addressing some of the challenges found in healthcare. Lean has so far not been used in Kuwaiti primary healthcare centres. This thesis explores the case for using Lean in Kuwait by examines issues around diabetes, as Kuwait rank the six highest in the world. In Kuwait, patients with diabetes are mainly managed in primary healthcare centres. The case for using Lean was explored across five interrelated studies which are summarised below: Study 1 involved a review of the literature which found that Lean tools have been used mostly in hospital settings without any rigorous evaluation and with little or no attention paid to primary healthcare or in developing countries. Study 2 was a systematic documentary review of the challenges facing the healthcare system of Kuwait. In Kuwait, expenditure on healthcare services is expected to double within five years. Life expectancy is increasing, while the percentage of the elderly population is growing, leading to increasing demand of services to treat non-communicable disease such as diabetes. Kuwait still sends many of its patients overseas for treatment. Currently, 10 mega projects worth approximately 2 billion Kuwaiti Dinar are being constructed in Kuwait that will result in a doubling of the bed capacity. However, the average occupancy rate between 2006 to 2015 was 63.6%, which is considered low compared to the average occupancy rate in European Union countries. Study 3 sought the views of Kuwaiti healthcare leaders about Lean and challenges facing the healthcare system of Kuwait. The key findings were: (1) Most leaders agreed that the current healthcare system in Kuwait faces difficult challenges and needs to change its management approach; (2) Lean as a management approach is considered a new concept among leaders of Kuwaiti healthcare organisations; (3) They did not have adequate knowledge regarding Lean but were willing to support any future Lean improvement initiatives. Study 4 explored the knowledge of Healthcare Workers regarding Lean within Kuwait’s primary healthcare centres through a cross-sectional survey in four primary healthcare centres. Only 11% of participants were familiar with Lean. None of the participants were involved or had an ongoing Lean initiative or project but 80% of participants were willing to be involved in future Lean initiatives. Study 5 mapped the flow of patients with type 2 diabetes in primary healthcare centres to identify potential waste and make recommendations for improvement. Patients with type 2 diabetes typically visit their General Practitioner at least every two months for a review appointment. When a blood test is required to monitor blood sugar levels, three more visits are required, involving the blood test, collection of test results by the patient and a review of the results with the general practitioner. Four potential improvements were identified: using point of care testing, the posting of laboratory results to general practitioner computer systems, the introduction of guidelines that standardise the practice for the patient’s visit and permitting the general practitioner to prescribe medication that will last four months. The process map of patients with type 2 diabetes has highlighted waste and improvement suggestions that may reduce workload, enhance patient satisfaction, avoid unnecessary visits, enhance the timeliness of laboratory testing, improve communication between and across departments and minimise the use of resources without undermining the quality of care. These suggestions, if implemented on the national level, could bring tremendous benefits but still need to be rigorously evaluated. The thesis concludes by noting that there is considerable potential in adopting Lean to improve the healthcare services in Kuwait, but further work is required to implement the changes and rigorously evaluate them.
  • The Impact of Board Diversity on Textual Social, Environmental Disclosures, and Corporate Performance

    Elshandidy, Tamer; Adkins, Roger; Sharma, Abhijit; Omara, Hossam K.A.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2021)
    Drawing on the notion of faultlines – a hypothetical dividing line that splits a group into two or more subgroups based on the alignment of one or more individual attributes – this thesis proposes a new approach to the measurement and assessment of board diversity to understand how high(er) performing boards can be built i.e., the multi-dimensional diversity index (MDI). The proposed MDI captures the joint effect of differences in director attributes at four diversity levels for 26,743 directors, namely: (i) surface (or baseline); (ii) identity; (iii) demographic; and (iv) meso-level. The current study uses three-stage least squares (3SLS) with a panel of 3,357 FTSE All-Share index non-financial companies from 2005 to 2018. To this end, a key implication of this study – and by extension, the proposed MDI – is that it challenges the conventional notion that boards are improved ‘enough’ by focusing on the micro-dimension and increasing stand-alone diversity attributes, such as gender. Collectively, this study’s results suggest that a well-diversified board incentivises managers to disclose more information on social and environmental activities in contrast to firms with an extreme faultline score. The results show that highly effective boards with a moderate faultline score at meso-level diversity (e.g., identity, information, and non-demographic attributes) lead to better accounting profitability, corporate value, and market-based performance. Remarkably, the present study finds that nationality diversity per se positively impacts corporate performance; in contrast, the dominance of male directors hinders firm performance significantly.
  • No Research About Us Without Us. Using Feminist Participatory Action Research to set the Obesity Research Agenda with Pakistani Women Living in Bradford

    Cooper, Melanie; West, Jane; McEachan, Rosemary; Iqbal, Halima (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2021)
    Background: Obesity disproportionately affects Pakistani women and rates of obesity related conditions are high in Bradford. Research priority setting can guide the development of policy and practice, resulting in more relevant research. There are no research prioritisation exercises targeted at obesity in Pakistani women. Aim: To develop an obesity research agenda with Pakistani women living in deprived inner-city areas of Bradford. Methods: Using a feminist participatory action research design, a five stage process was adopted involving the following: (i) A systematic review to identify the gaps in knowledge (ii) face-to-face interviews with 21 Pakistani women to generate their health concerns (iii) focus groups to explore the obesity concerns of 23 Pakistani women (iv) survey to identify unmet obesity needs of Pakistani women according to 160 local, multisectoral stakeholders (v) adapted consensus method involving 32 Pakistani women to rank their identified concerns and unmet needs in order of importance. Results: The study identified needs related to cultural and language constraints, including barriers in obtaining health promotion information and the social isolation of women. Education needs and misconceptions surrounding diet and physical activity were also identified. Highest rankings were given to concerns and needs surrounding the mental health of Pakistani women, education needs for a healthy diet, and the benefits of physical activity. Conclusion: Pakistani women’s unmet obesity needs highlight the existence of wider determinants of health that are structural in nature. Considering these barriers, a research agenda was developed from the findings and reflect the obesity health needs of this population.
  • Visualising the Crucible of Shetland’s Broch Building. The role of digital documentation and legacy data in supporting the research, active conservation and presentation of Shetland’s heritage

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Wilson, Lyn; Dockrill, Stephen J.; Turner, V.E.; Bond, Julie M.; Sou, Li Z. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2021)
  • Development of novel tumour-activated peptide prodrugs of ATR/ATM inhibitor, AZD6738

    Falconer, Robert A.; Loadman, Paul M.; Barnieh, Francis M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2019)
  • Design, synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of potential polysialyltransferase (ST8SiaII) inhibitors

    Shnyder, Steven D.; Falconer, Robert A.; Ali, Marrwa M. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy & Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2020)
  • Modelling, Simulation, Optimisation and Thermodynamic Analysis of Multistage Reverse Osmosis Process based Brackish Water Desalination

    Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Patel, Rajnikant; Al-Obaidi, Mudhar A.A.R.; Alsarayreh, Alanood A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2020)
  • Drivers and economic consequences of quality of disclosure of non-GAAP measures

    Elshandidy, Tamer; Baimbridge, Mark J.; Dent, Aneta (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2021)
  • Bond Performance between Corroded Steel and Recycled Aggregate Concrete Incorporating Nano Silica

    Ashour, Ashraf A.; Alhawat, Musab M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2020)
    The current research project mainly aims to investigate the corrosion resistance and bond performance of steel reinforced recycled aggregate concrete incorporating nano-silica under both normal and corrosive environmental conditions. The experimental part includes testing of 180 pull-out specimens prepared from 12 different mixtures. The main parameters studied were the amount of recycled aggregate (RCA) (i.e. 0%, 25%, 50% and 100%), nano silica (1.5% and 3%), steel embedment length as well as steel bar diameter (12 and 20mm). Different levels of corrosion were electrochemically induced by applying impressed voltage technique for 2, 5, 10 and 15 days. The experimental observations mainly focused on the corrosion level in addition to the ultimate bond, failure modes and slips occurred. Experimental results showed that the bond performance between un-corroded steel and recycled aggregate concrete slightly reduced, while a significant degradation was observed after being exposed to corrosive conditions, in comparison to normal concrete. On the other hand, the use of nano silica (NS) showed a reasonable bond enhancement with both normal and RCA concretes under normal conditions. However, much better influence in terms of bond and corrosion resistance was observed under advancing levels of corrosion exposure, reflecting the improvement in corrosion resistance. Therefore, NS was superbly effective in recovering the poor performance in bond for RCA concretes. More efficiency was reported with RCA concretes compared to the conventional concrete. The bond resistance slightly with a small amount of corrosion (almost 2% weight loss), then a significant bond degradation occurs with further corrosion. The influence of specific surface area and amount of nano silica on the performance of concrete with different water/binder (w/b) ratios has been also studied, using 63 different mixtures produced with three different types of colloidal NS having various surface areas and particle sizes. The results showed that the performance of concrete is heavily influenced by changing the surface area of nano silica. Amongst the three used types of nano silica, NS with SSA of 250 m2 /g achieved the highest enhancement rate in terms of compressive strength, water absorption and microstructure analysis, followed by NS with SSA of 500 m2/g, whilst NS with SSA of 51.4 m2 /g was less advantageous for all mixtures. The optimum nano silica ratio in concrete is affected by its particle size as well as water to binder ratio. The feasibility of the impact-echo method for identifying the corrosion was evaluated and compared to the corrosion obtained by mass loss method. The results showed that the impact echo testing can be effectively used to qualitatively detect the damage caused by corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. A significant difference in the dominant frequencies response was observed after exposure to the high and moderate levels of corrosion, whilst no clear trend was observed at the initial stage of corrosion. Artificial neural network models were also developed to predict bond strength for corroded/uncorroded steel bars in concrete using the main influencing parameters (i.e., concrete strength, concrete cover, bar diameter, embedment length and corrosion rate). The developed models were able to predict the bond strength with a high level of accuracy, which was confirmed by conducting a parametric study.
  • The Empirical Study of Sustainable Energy Use and Policies in a Developing Country. The Case of Kenya Vision 2030

    Rajamani, Haile S.; Carruthers, Andrew; Nyong'a, Enock M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2019)
    Recent literature has shown a close correlation between economic prosperity and the intensity of energy use in a country. In this study, an investigation to determine the extent of evolution of the concept of sustainability in the energy industry to realise the aim of Kenya Vision 2030 development blueprint is presented. In this study, journals, government reports, statutes and policies dating back to the end of the eighteenth century were reviewed to establish the research gap. Interviewing of key stakeholders in the energy industry a survey of rural, peri-urban and urban households on energy use and supply in the country and a geographical information system were methods used for data analysis. The study findings revealed that; the current energy policies are a legacy of colonial policies which benefit the urban and commercial centres along the railway line; the current policies are skewed to promoting electricity and petroleum sectors in energy industry and; biomass is the main source of fuel for rural and peri-urban households and, increased household energy demand has a negative impact on environment. In light of these findings, the practice of energy use and policies have to evolve significantly so that the aim of the Vision 2030 has to be realised. Therefore, this study is an innovative, analytical and methodological approach to sustainable energy use and policy assessment for developing countries. The study also makes contribution to the body of knowledge in the field of sustainable energy use and policies for developing countries by literature publication.

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