A cell level automated approach for quantifying antibody staining in immunohistochemistry images. A structural approach for quantifying antibody staining in colonic cancer spheroid images by integrating image processing and machine learning towards the implementation of computer aided scoring of cancer markers.
AuthorKhorshed, Reema A.A.
Phillips, Roger M.
Colonic cancer spheroid images
Computer aided scoring
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentDepartment of Computing, School of Computing, Informatics and Media
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AbstractImmunohistological (IHC) stained images occupy a fundamental role in the pathologist¿s diagnosis and monitoring of cancer development. The manual process of monitoring such images is a subjective, time consuming process that typically relies on the visual ability and experience level of the pathologist. A novel and comprehensive system for the automated quantification of antibody inside stained cell nuclei in immunohistochemistry images is proposed and demonstrated in this research. The system is based on a cellular level approach, where each nucleus is individually analyzed to observe the effects of protein antibodies inside the nuclei. The system provides three main quantitative descriptions of stained nuclei. The first quantitative measurement automatically generates the total number of cell nuclei in an image. The second measure classifies the positive and negative stained nuclei based on the nuclei colour, morphological and textural features. Such features are extracted directly from each nucleus to provide discriminative characteristics of different stained nuclei. The output generated from the first and second quantitative measures are used collectively to calculate the percentage of positive nuclei (PS). The third measure proposes a novel automated method for determining the staining intensity level of positive nuclei or what is known as the intensity score (IS). The minor intensity features are observed and used to classify low, intermediate and high stained positive nuclei. Statistical methods were applied throughout the research to validate the system results against the ground truth pathology data. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and provide high accuracy when compared to the ground truth pathology data.
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Systematic associations between germ-line mutations and human cancersAl-Shammari, Mohamad H.; Tobin, Desmond J.; Peng, Yonghong (2016)The revolution in Big Data has opened the gate for new research challenges in biomedical science. The aim of this study was to investigate whether germ-line gene mutations are a significant factor in 29 major primary human cancers. Using data obtained from multiple biological databases, we identified 424 genes from 8879 cancer mutation records. By integrating these gene mutation records a human cancer map was constructed from which several key results were obtained. These include the observations that missense/nonsense and regulatory mutations might play central role in connecting cancers/genes, and tend to be distributed in all chromosomes. This suggests that, of all mutation classes missense/nonsense and regulatory mutation classes are over-expressed in human genome and so are likely to have a significant impact on human cancer aetiology and pathomechanism. This offers new insights into how the distribution and interconnections of gene mutations influence the development of cancers.
Response of multiple recurrent TaT1 bladder cancer to intravesical apaziquone (EO9): Comparative analysis of tumour recurrence rates.Jain, A.; Phillips, Roger M.; Scally, Andy J.; Lenaz, G.; Beer, M.; Puri, Rajiv (2009)Objectives Previous studies have demonstrated that intravesical administration of apaziquone (EOquin) has ablative activity against superficial bladder cancer marker lesions with 8 out of 12 complete responses recorded. We present a comparison between the rates of tumor recurrence before and after treatment with apaziquone. Methods The rate of tumor recurrence after treatment with apaziquone was compared with each patient's historical record of recurrences obtained from a retrospective analysis of the patients' case notes. The time to each recurrence event before apaziquone treatment and the time to the first recurrence after apaziquone treatment were recorded, and the data were analyzed using a population-averaged linear regression model using Stata Release, version 9.2, software. Results Of the eight complete responses obtained in the Phase I study, tumor recurrence occurred in 4 patients and the remaining 4 patients remained disease free after a median follow-up of 31 months. The time to the first recurrence after apaziquone treatment was significantly longer (P <0.001) compared with the historical pattern and recurrence interval before apaziquone. Before apaziquone instillation, the mean ± SE recurrence rate and tumor rate per year was 1.5 ± 0.2 and 4.8 ± 1.2, respectively, and these decreased to 0.6 ± 0.25 and 1.5 ± 0.8, respectively, after apaziquone treatment (P <0.05). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that early recurrences after treatment with apaziquone are infrequent and the interval to recurrence is significantly greater compared with the historical recurrence times for these patients. Larger prospective randomised trials are warranted to confirm these results. Aapaziquone (EOquin, USAN, E09, 3-hydroxy-5-aziridinyl-1-methyl-2[indole-4,7-dione]¿prop-¿-en-¿-ol) belongs to a class of anticancer agents known as bioreductive drugs that require metabolism by cellular reductases to generate a cytotoxic species.1 Although it is chemically related to mitomycin C, apaziquone has a distinctly different mechanism of action and preclinical activity profile.1 and 2 The initial optimism generated by its preclinical activity profile rapidly evaporated after the demonstration that intravenously administered apaziquone was clinically inactive against a range of solid tumors in Phase II clinical trials.3 and 4 Several possible explanations were considered for its lack of efficacy, but poor drug delivery to the tumor because of the rapid pharmacokinetic elimination of apaziquone in conjunction with relatively poor penetration through avascular tissue was considered to be the principal reason.5 On the basis of the rationale that intravesical administration would circumvent the problem of drug delivery and any apaziquone absorbed into the blood stream would be rapidly cleared,6 a Phase I-II clinical pilot study of intravesical administration of apaziquone to superficial bladder tumors was established.7 The results of that trial demonstrated that intravesically administered apaziquone has ablative activity against superficial bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) marker lesions.7 These results were confirmed and extended in a Phase II clinical trial of 47 patients with superficial bladder TCC, in which complete responses were obtained in 67% of patients.8 Because all the enrolled patients in the original trial7 had had multiple recurrences after previous intravesical chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy, the purpose of the present study was, first, to report the recurrences that occurred after apaziquone treatment and, second, to study the effect of apaziquone instillation on the recurrence rate by statistically comparing these results with the historical pattern of recurrences for each patient before treatment with apaziquone.
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