Performance modelling and analysis of e-commerce systems using class based priority scheduling. An investigation into the development of new class based priority scheduling mechanisms for e-commerce system combining different techniques.
AuthorNafea, Ibtehal T.
SupervisorAwan, Irfan U.
Class Based Priority Scheduling
Class based priority scheduling
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentDepartment of Computing, School of Computing, Informatics and Media
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractRecently, technological developments have affected most lifestyles, especially with the growth in Internet usage. Internet applications highlight the E-commerce capabilities and applications which are now available everywhere; they receive a great number of users on a 24-7 basis because online services are easy to use, faster and cheaper to acquire. Thus E-commerce web sites have become crucial for companies to increase their revenues. This importance has identified certain effective requirements needed from the performance of these applications. In particular, if the web server is overloaded, poor performance can result, due to either a huge rate of requests being generated which are beyond the server¿s capacity, or due to saturation of the communication links capacity which connects the web server to the network. Recent researches consider the overload issue and explore different mechanisms for managing the performance of E-commerce applications under overload condition. This thesis proposes a formal approach in order to investigate the effects of the extreme load and the number of dropped requests on the performance of E- III commerce web servers. The proposed approach is based on the class-based priority scheme that classifies E-commerce requests into different classes. Because no single technique can solve all aspects of overload problems, this research combines several techniques including: admission control mechanism, session-based admission control, service differentiation, request scheduling and queuing model-based approach. Request classification is based on the premise that some requests (e.g. buy) are generally considered more important than others (e.g. browse or search). Moreover, this research considers the extended models from Priority Scheduling Mechanism (PSM). These models add a new parameter, such as a review model or modify the basic PSM to low priority fair model, after the discovery of ineffectiveness with low priority customers or to add new features such as portal models. The proposed model is formally specified using the ¿ -calculus in early stage of models design and a multi-actor simulation was developed to reflect the target models as accurately as possible and is implemented as a Java-based prototype system. A formal specification that captures the essential PSM features while keeping the performance model sufficiently simple is presented. Furthermore, the simplicity of the UML bridges the gap between ¿-calculus and Java programming language. IV There are many metrics for measuring the performance of E-commerce web servers. This research focuses on the performance of E-commerce web servers that refer to the throughput, utilisation, average response time, dropped requests and arrival rate. A number of experiments are conducted in order to test the performance management of the proposed approaches.
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General queueing networks with priorities. Maximum entropy analysis of general queueing network models with priority preemptive resume or head-of-line and non-priority based service disciplines.Kouvatsos, Demetres D.; Tabet Aouel, Nasreddine (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2010-02-08)Priority based scheduling disciplines are widely used by existing computer operating systems. However, the mathematical analysis and modelling of these systems present great difficulties since priority schedulling is not compatible with exact product form solutions of queueing network models (QNM's). It is therefore, necessary to employ credible approximate techniques for solving QNM's with priority classes. The principle of maximum entropy (ME) is a method of inference for estimating a probability distribution given prior information in the form of expected values. This principle is applied, based on marginal utilisation, mean queue length and idle state probability constraints, to characterise new product-form approximations for general open and closed QNM's with priority (preemptive-resume, non-preemtive head-of-line) and non-priority (first-come-first-served, processor-sharing, last-come-first-served with, or without preemtion) servers. The ME solutions are interpreted in terms of a decomposition of the original network into individual stable GIG11 queueing stations with assumed renewal arrival processes. These solutions are implemented by making use of the generalised exponential (GE) distributional model to approximate the interarrival-time and service-time distributions in the network. As a consequence the ME queue length distribution of the stable GE/GEzl priority queue, subject to mean value constraints obtained via classical queueing theory on bulk queues, is used as a 'building block' together with corresponding universal approximate flow formulae for the analysis of general QNM's with priorities. The credibility of the ME method is demonstrated with illustrative numerical examples and favourable comparisons against exact, simulation and other approximate methods are made.
Performance Evaluation and Prediction of 2-D Markovian and Bursty Multi-Traffic Queues. Analytical Solution for 2-D Markovian and Bursty Multi-Traffic Non Priority, Priority and Hand Off Calling Schemes.Kouvatsos, Demetres D.; Karamat, Taimur (University of BradfordSchool of Informatics, Computing and Media, 2011-10-28)Queueing theory is the mathematical study of queues or waiting lines, which are formed whenever demand for service exceeds the capacity to provide service. A queueing system is composed of customers, packets or calls that need some kind of service. These entities arrive at queueing system, join a queue if service is not immediately available and leave system after receiving service. There are also cases when customers, packets or calls leave system without joining queue or drop out without receiving service even after waiting for some time. Queueing network models with finite capacity have facilitated the analysis of discrete flow systems, such as computer systems, transportation networks, manufacturing systems and telecommunication networks, by providing powerful and realistic tools for performance evaluation and prediction. In wireless cellular systems mobility is the most important feature and continuous service is achieved by supporting handoff from one cell to another. Hand off is the process of changing channel associated with the current connection while a call is in progress. A handoff is required when a mobile terminal moves from one cell to another or the signal quality deteriorates in current cell. Since neighbouring cells use disjoint subset of frequency bands therefore negotiation must take place between mobile terminal, the current base station and next potential base station. A poorly designed handoff scheme significantly decreases quality of service (QOS). Different schemes have been devised and in these schemes handoff calls are prioritize. Also most of the performance evaluation techniques consider the case where the arrival process is poisson and service is exponential i.e. there is single arrival and single departure. Whereas in practice there is burstiness in cellular traffic i.e. there can be bulk arrivals and bulk departures. Other issue is that, assumptions made by stochastic process models are not satisfied. Most of the effort is concentrated on providing different interpretations of M/M queues rather than attempting to provide a new methodology. In this thesis performance evaluation of multi traffic cellular models i.e. non priority, priority and hand off calling scheme for bursty traffic are devised. Moreover extensions are carried out towards the analysis of a multi-traffic M/M queueing system and state probabilities are calculated analytically.
Error relilient video communications using high level M-QAM. Modelling and simulation of a comparative analysis of a dual-priority M-QAM transmission system for H.264/AVC video applications over band-limited and error-phone channels.Woodward, Mike E.; Abdurrhman, Ahmed B.M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, School of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2011-06-22)An experimental investigation of an M level (M = 16, 64 and 256) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) transmission system suitable for video transmission is presented. The communication system is based on layered video coding and unequal error protection to make the video bitstream robust to channel errors. An implementation is described in which H.264 video is protected unequally by partitioning the compressed data into two layers of different visual importance. The partition scheme is based on a separation of the group of pictures (GoP) in the intra-coded frame (I-frame) and predictive coded frame (P frame). This partition scheme is then applied to split the H.264-coded video bitstream and is suitable for Constant Bit Rate (CBR) transmission. Unequal error protection is based on uniform and non-uniform M-QAM constellations in conjunction with different scenarios of splitting the transmitted symbol for protection of the more important information of the video data; different constellation arrangements are proposed and evaluated to increase the capacity of the high priority layer. The performance of the transmission system is evaluated under Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading conditions. Simulation results showed that in noisy channels the decoded video can be improved by assigning a larger portion of the video data to the enhancement layer in conjunction with non-uniform constellation arrangements; in better channel conditions the quality of the received video can be improved by assigning more bits in the high priority channel and using uniform constellations. The aforementioned varying conditions can make the video transmission more successful over error-prone channels. Further techniques were developed to combat various channel impairments by considering channel coding methods suitable for layered video coding applications. It is shown that a combination of non-uniform M-QAM and forward error correction (FEC) will yield a better performance. Additionally, antenna diversity techniques are examined and introduced to the transmission system that can offer a significant improvement in the quality of service of mobile video communication systems in environments that can be modelled by a Rayleigh fading channel.