The role of peripheral visual cues in planning and controlling movement :|ban investigation of which cues provided by different parts of the visual field influence the execution of movement and how they work to control upper and lower limb motion.
KeywordPeripheral visual cues
Central visual cues
Reaching and grasping
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentBradford School of Optometry and Vision Science
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AbstractVisual cues have previously been classified as visual exproprioceptive, when defining the relative position of the body within the environment and are continuously updated while moving (online), and visual exteroceptive when describing static features of the environment which are typically elaborated offline (feedforward). However peripheral visual cues involved in the control of movement have not previously been clearly defined using this classification. Hence the role played by peripheral visual cues in the planning and/or online control of movement remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to provide a systematic understanding of the importance of peripheral visual cues in several types of movement, namely overground locomotion, adaptive gait, postural stability and reaching and grasping. 3D motion capture techniques were used to collect limb and whole body kinematics during such movements. Visual peripheral cues were manipulated by visual field occlusion conditions or by the employment of point-lights in a dark room. Results showed that the visual cues provided by different parts of the peripheral visual field are mainly used for online fine tuning of limb trajectory towards a target (either a floor-based obstacle or an object to grasp). The absence of peripheral visual cues while moving disrupted the spatio-temporal dynamic relationship between subject and target and resulted in increased margins of safety between body and target and increased time and variability of several dependent measures. These findings argue in favour of the classification of peripheral visual cues as visual exproprioceptive.
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Utility of Peripheral Visual Cues in Planning and Controlling Adaptive GaitGraci, Valentina; Elliott, David B.; Buckley, John G. (2010-01)The purpose of this article is to determine the relative importance to adaptive locomotion of peripheral visual cues provided by different parts of the visual field. Twelve subjects completed obstacle crossing trials while wearing goggles that provided four visual conditions: upper visual field occlusion, lower visual field occlusion (LO), circumferential peripheral visual field occlusion (CPO), and full vision. The obstacle was either positioned as a lone structure or within a doorframe. Given that subjects completed the task safely without cues from the lower or peripheral visual field, this suggests that subjects used exteroceptive information provided in a feed-forward manner under these conditions. LO and CPO led to increased foot placement distance from the obstacle and to increased toe clearance over the obstacle with a reduced crossing-walking velocity. The increased variability of dependent measures under LO and CPO suggests that exproprioceptive information from the peripheral visual field is generally used to provide online control of lower limbs. The presence of the doorframe facilitated lead-foot placement under LO by providing exproprioceptive cues in the upper visual field. However, under CPO conditions, the doorframe led to a further reduction in crossing velocity and increase in trail-foot horizontal distance and lead-toe clearance, which may have been because of concerns about hitting the doorframe with the head and/or upper body. Our findings suggest that exteroceptive cues are provided by the central visual field and are used in a feed-forward manner to plan the gait adaptations required to safely negotiate an obstacle, whereas exproprioceptive information is provided by the peripheral visual field and used online to “fine tune” adaptive gait. The loss of the upper and lower peripheral visual fields together had a greater effect on adaptive gait compared with the loss of the lower visual field alone, likely because of the absence of lamellar flow visual cues used to control egomotion.