Investigation of Energy Demand Modeling and Management for Local Communities. Investigation of the electricity demand modeling and management including consumption behaviour, dynamic tariffs, and use of renewable energy.
AuthorIhbal, Abdel-Baset M.I.
SupervisorRajamani, Haile S.
Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.
KeywordElectricity load profile
Demand side management
Energy demand planning
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractVarious forecasting tools, based on historical data, exist for planners of national networks that are very effective in planning national interventions to ensure energy security, and meet carbon obligations over the long term. However, at a local community level, where energy demand patterns may significantly differ from the national picture, planners would be unable to justify local and more appropriate intervention due to the lack of appropriate planning tools. In this research, a new methodology is presented that initially creates a virtual community of households in a small community based on a survey of a similar community, and then predicts the energy behaviour of each household, and hence of the community. It is based on a combination of the statistical data, and a questionnaire survey. The methodology therefore enables realistic predictions and can help local planners decide on measures such as embedding renewable energy and demand management. Using the methodology developed, a study has been carried out in order to understand the patterns of electricity consumption within UK households. The methodology developed in this study has been used to investigate the incentives currently available to consumers to see if it would be possible to shift some of the load from peak hours. Furthermore, the possibility of using renewable energy (RE) at community level is also studied and the results presented. Real time pricing information was identified as a barrier to understanding the effectiveness of various incentives and interventions. A new pricing criteria has therefore been developed to help developers and planners of local communities to understand the cost of intervention. Conclusions have been drawn from the work. Finally, suggestions for future work have been presented.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Flexible Design and Operation of Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) Desalination Process Subject to Variable Fouling and Variable Freshwater DemandSaid, Said Alforjani R.; Emtir, M.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2013)This work describes how the design and operation parameters of the Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) desalination process are optimised when the process is subject to variation in seawater temperature, fouling and freshwater demand throughout the day. A simple polynomial based dynamic seawater temperature and variable freshwater demand correlations are developed based on actual data which are incorporated in the MSF mathematical model using gPROMS models builder 3.0.3. In addition, a fouling model based on stage temperature is considered. The fouling and the effect of noncondensable gases are incorporated into the calculation of overall heat transfer co-efficient for condensers. Finally, an optimisation problem is developed where the total daily operating cost of the MSF process is minimised by optimising the design (no of stages) and the operating (seawater rejected flowrate and brine recycle flowrate) parameters.
Efficiency of soil aquifer treatment in the removal of wastewater contaminants and endocrine disruptors. A study on the removal of triclocarban and estrogens and the effect of chemical oxygen demand and hydraulic loading rates on the reduction of organics and nutrients in the unsaturated and saturated zones of the aquifer.Tizaoui, Chedly; Mohamed, Mostafa H.A.; Essandoh, Helen M.K. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-11-22)This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) under different loading regimes, using wastewater of much higher strength than usually encountered in SAT systems, and also to investigate the removal of the endocrine disruptors triclocarban (TCC), estrone (E1), 17¿-estradiol (E2) and 17¿- ethinylestradiol (EE2). SAT was simulated in the laboratory using a series of soil columns under saturated and unsaturated conditions. Investigation of the removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), nitrogen and phosphate in a 2 meter long saturated soil column under a combination of constant hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) and variable COD concentrations as well as variable HLR under constant COD showed that at fixed HLR, a decrease in the influent concentrations of DOC, BOD, total nitrogen and phosphate improved their removal efficiencies. It was found that COD mass loading applied as low COD wastewater infiltrated over short residence times would provide better effluent quality than the same mass applied as a COD with higher concentration at long residence times. On the other hand relatively high concentrations coupled with long residence time gave better removal efficiency for organic nitrogen. Phosphate removal though poor under all experimental conditions, was better at low HLRs. In 1 meter saturated and unsaturated soil columns, E2 was the most easily removed estrogen, while EE2 was the least removed. Reducing the thickness of the unsaturated zone had a negative impact on removal efficiencies of the estrogens whereas increased DOC improved the removal in the saturated columns. Better removal efficiencies were also obtained at lower HLRs and in the presence of silt and clay. Sorption and biodegradation were found to be responsible for TCC removal in a 300 mm long saturated soil column, the latter mechanism however being unsustainable. TCC removal efficiency was dependent on the applied concentration and decreased over time and increased with column depth. Within the duration of the experimental run, TCC negatively impacted on treatment performance, possibly due to its antibacterial property, as evidenced by a reduction in COD removals in the column. COD in the 2 meter column under saturated conditions was modelled successfully with the advection dispersion equation with coupled Monod kinetics. Empirical models were also developed for the removal of TCC and EE2 under saturated and unsaturated conditions respectively. The empirical models predicted the TCC and EE2 removal profiles well. There is however the need for validation of the models developed
Soil aquifer treatment of artificial wastewater under saturated conditionsEssandoh, Helen M.K.; Tizaoui, Chedly; Mohamed, Mostafa H.A.; Amy, G.; Brdjanovic, D. (2011)A 2000 mm long saturated laboratory soil column was used to simulate soil aquifer treatment under saturated conditions to assess the removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen and phosphate, using high strength artificial wastewater. The removal rates were determined under a combination of constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and variable COD concentrations as well as variable HLR under a constant COD. Within the range of COD concentrations considered (42 mg L(-)(1)-135 mg L(-)(1)) it was found that at fixed hydraulic loading rate, a decrease in the influent concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen and phosphate improved their removal efficiencies. At the high COD concentrations applied residence times influenced the redox conditions in the soil column. Long residence times were detrimental to the removal process for COD, BOD and DOC as anoxic processes and sulphate reduction played an important role as electron acceptors. It was found that total COD mass loading within the range of 911 mg d(-)(1)-1780 mg d(-)(1) applied as low COD wastewater infiltrated coupled with short residence times would provide better effluent quality than the same mass applied as a COD with higher concentration at long residence times. The opposite was true for organic nitrogen where relatively high concentrations coupled with long residence time gave better removal efficiency.