Software test case generation from system models and specification. Use of the UML diagrams and High Level Petri Nets models for developing software test cases.
AuthorAlhroob, Aysh M.
SupervisorDahal, Keshav P.
Hossain, M. Alamgir
KeywordSoftware test cases
High Level Petri Nets models
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThe main part in the testing of the software is in the generation of test cases suitable for software system testing. The quality of the test cases plays a major role in reducing the time of software system testing and subsequently reduces the cost. The test cases, in model de- sign stages, are used to detect the faults before implementing it. This early detection offers more flexibility to correct the faults in early stages rather than latter ones. The best of these tests, that covers both static and dynamic software system model specifications, is one of the chal- lenges in the software testing. The static and dynamic specifications could be represented efficiently by Unified Modelling Language (UML) class diagram and sequence diagram. The work in this thesis shows that High Level Petri Nets (HLPN) can represent both of them in one model. Using a proper model in the representation of the software specifications is essential to generate proper test cases. The research presented in this thesis introduces novel and automated test cases generation techniques that can be used within a software sys- tem design testing. Furthermore, this research introduces e cient au- tomated technique to generate a formal software system model (HLPN) from semi-formal models (UML diagrams). The work in this thesis con- sists of four stages: (1) generating test cases from class diagram and Object Constraint Language (OCL) that can be used for testing the software system static specifications (the structure) (2) combining class diagram, sequence diagram and OCL to generate test cases able to cover both static and dynamic specifications (3) generating HLPN automat- ically from single or multi sequence diagrams (4) generating test cases from HLPN. The test cases that are generated in this work covered the structural and behavioural of the software system model. In first two phases of this work, the class diagram and sequence diagram are decomposed to nodes (edges) which are linked by Classes Hierarchy Table (CHu) and Edges Relationships Table (ERT) as well. The linking process based on the classes and edges relationships. The relationships of the software system components have been controlled by consistency checking technique, and the detection of these relationships has been automated. The test cases were generated based on these interrelationships. These test cases have been reduced to a minimum number and the best test case has been selected in every stage. The degree of similarity between test cases is used to ignore the similar test cases in order to avoid the redundancy. The transformation from UML sequence diagram (s) to HLPN facilitates the simpli cation of software system model and introduces formal model rather than semi-formal one. After decomposing the sequence diagram to Combined Fragments, the proposed technique converts each Combined Fragment to the corresponding block in HLPN. These blocks are con- nected together in Combined Fragments Net (CFN) to construct the the HLPN model. The experimentations with the proposed techniques show the effectiveness of these techniques in covering most of the software system specifications.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Dynamic Modelling and Optimization of Polymerization Processes in Batch and Semi-batch Reactors. Dynamic Modelling and Optimization of Bulk Polymerization of Styrene, Solution Polymerization of MMA and Emulsion Copolymerization of Styrene and MMA in Batch and Semi-batch Reactors using Control Vector Parameterization Techniques.Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Ibrahim, W.H.B.W. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design & Technology, 2012-02-29)Dynamic modelling and optimization of three different processes namely (a) bulk polymerization of styrene, (b) solution polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and (c) emulsion copolymerization of Styrene and MMA in batch and semi-batch reactors are the focus of this work. In this work, models are presented as sets of differential-algebraic equations describing the process. Different optimization problems such as (a) maximum conversion (Xn), (b) maximum number average molecular weight (Mn) and (c) minimum time to achieve the desired polymer molecular properties (defined as pre-specified values of monomer conversion and number average molecular weight) are formulated. Reactor temperature, jacket temperature, initial initiator concentration, monomer feed rate, initiator feed rate and surfactant feed rate are used as optimization variables in the optimization formulations. The dynamic optimization problems were converted into nonlinear programming problem using the CVP techniques which were solved using efficient SQP (Successive Quadratic Programming) method available within the gPROMS (general PROcess Modelling System) software. The process model used for bulk polystyrene polymerization in batch reactors, using 2, 2 azobisisobutyronitrile catalyst (AIBN) as initiator was improved by including the gel and glass effects. The results obtained from this work when compared with the previous study by other researcher which disregarded the gel and glass effect in their study which show that the batch time operation are significantly reduced while the amount of the initial initiator concentration required increases. Also, the termination rate constant decreases as the concentration of the mixture increases, resulting rapid monomer conversion. The process model used for solution polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in batch reactors, using AIBN as the initiator and Toluene as the solvent was improved by including the free volume theory to calculate the initiator efficiency, f. The effects of different f was examined and compared with previous work which used a constant value of f 0.53. The results of these studies show that initiator efficiency, f is not constant but decreases with the increase of monomer conversion along the process. The determination of optimal control trajectories for emulsion copolymerization of Styrene and MMA with the objective of maximizing the number average molecular weight (Mn) and overall conversion (Xn) were carried out in batch and semi-batch reactors. The initiator used in this work is Persulfate K2S2O8 and the surfactant is Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS). Reduction of the pre-batch time increases the Mn but decreases the conversion (Xn). The sooner the addition of monomer into the reactor, the earlier the growth of the polymer chain leading to higher Mn. Besides that, Mn also can be increased by decreasing the initial initiator concentration (Ci0). Less oligomeric radicals will be produced with low Ci0, leading to reduced polymerization loci thus lowering the overall conversion. On the other hand, increases of reaction temperature (Tr) will decrease the Mn since transfer coefficient is increased at higher Tr leading to increase of the monomeric radicals resulting in an increase in termination reaction.
Analysis of cloud testbeds using opensource solutionsMohammed, Bashir; Kiran, Mariam (2015)Cloud computing is increasingly attracting large attention both in academic research and in industrial initiatives. However, despite the popularity, there is a lack of research on the suitability of software tools and parameters for creating and deploying Cloud test beds. Virtualization and how to set up virtual environments can be done through software tools, which are available as open source, but there still needs to be work in terms of which tools to use and how to monitor parameters with the suitability of hardware resources available. This paper discusses the concepts of virtualization, as a practical view point, presenting an in-depth critical analysis of open source cloud implementation tools such as CloudStack, Eucalyptus, Nimbus, OpenStack, OpenNebula, OpenIoT, to name a few. This paper analyzes the various toolkits, parameters of these tools, and their usability for researchers looking to deploy their own Cloud test beds. The paper also extends further in developing an experimental case study of using OpenStack to construct and deploy a test bed using current resources available in the labs at the University of Bradford. This paper contributes to the theme of software setups and open source issues for developing Cloud test bed for deploying and constructing private Cloud test bed.
Serial correlations and 1/f power spectra in visual search reaction timesMcIlhagga, William H. (2008)In a visual search experiment, the subject must find a target item hidden in a display of other items, and their performance is measured by their reaction time (RT). Here I look at how visual search reaction times are correlated with past reaction times. Target-absent RTs (i.e. RTs to displays that have no target) are strongly correlated with past target-absent RTs and, treated as a time series, have a 1/f power spectrum. Target-present RTs, on the other hand, are effectively uncorrelated with past RTs. A model for visual search is presented which generates search RTs with this pattern of correlations and power spectra. In the model, search is conducted by matching search items up with "categorizers," which take a certain time to categorize each item as target or distractor; the RT is the sum of categorization times. The categorizers are drawn at random from a pool of active categorizers. After each search, some of the categorizers in the active pool are replaced with categorizers drawn from a larger population of unused categorizers. The categorizers that are not replaced are responsible for the RT correlations and the 1/f power spectrum.