Corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete. Corrosion of mild steel bars in concrete and its effect on steel-concrete bond strength.
Steel reinforcement corrosion
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology
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AbstractThis thesis reports on the research outcome of corrosion mechanism and corrosion rate of mild steel in different environments (saline, alkaline solutions and concrete media) using potentiodynamic polarization technique. The study also included the effect of corrosion on bond strength between reinforcing steel and concrete using pull-out test. Corrosion of mild steel and 316L stainless steel with different surface conditions in 1, 3 and 5% saline (NaCl + Distilled water) was investigated. Specimens ground with 200 and 600 grit silicon carbide grinding paper as well as 1¿m surface finish (polished with 1¿m diamond paste) were tested. In case of mild steel specimens, reduction in surface roughness caused increase in corrosion rate, while in 316L stainless steel corrosion rate decreased as the surface roughness improved. Metallographic examination of corroded specimens confirmed breakdown of passive region due to pitting corrosion. Corrosion of mild steel was also investigated in alkaline solution (saturated calcium hydroxide, pH =12.5) contaminated with 1, 3 and 5% saline. A series of corrosion experiments were also conducted to examine the efficiency of various concentrations of calcium nitrite (CN) on corrosion behaviour of both as-received and polished mild steel in alkaline solution containing 3% saline after 1 hour and 28 days of exposure. Corrosion rate was higher for the as-received than polished mild steel surface under the same testing conditions in NaCl alkaline solution with and without nitrites due to the effect of surface roughness. Morphology investigation of mild steel specimens in alkaline solution ii containing chlorides and nitrites showed localized pits even at nitrite concentration equal to chloride concentration. Corrosion of steel bars embedded in concrete having compressive strengths of 20, 30 and 46MPa was also investigated. The effect of 2 and 4% CN by weight of cement on corrosion behaviour of steel bar in low and high concrete strengths specimens were also studied. All reinforced concrete specimens were immersed in 3% saline solution for three different periods of 1, 7 and 15 days. In order to accelerate the chemical reactions, an external current of 0.4A was applied. Corrosion rate was measured by retrieving electrochemical information from polarization tests. Pull-out tests of reinforced concrete specimens were then conducted to assess the corroded steel/concrete bond characteristics. Experimental results showed that corrosion rate of steel bars and bond strength were dependent on concrete strength, amount of CN and acceleration corrosion period. As concrete strength increased from 20 to 46MPa, corrosion rate of embedded steel decreased. First day of corrosion acceleration showed a slight increase in steel/concrete bond strength, whereas severe corrosion due to 7 and 15 days corrosion acceleration significantly reduced steel/concrete bond strength. Addition of only 2% CN did not give corrosion protection for steel reinforcement in concrete with 20MPa strength at long time of exposure. However, the combination of good quality concrete and addition of CN appear to be a desirable approach to reduce the effect of chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement. At less time of exposure, specimens without CN showed higher bond strength in both concrete mixes than those with CN. After 7 days of corrosion acceleration, the higher concentration of CN gave higher bond strength in both concrete mixes. The same trend was observed at 15 days of corrosion acceleration except for the specimen with 20MPa compressive strength and 2% CN which recorded the highest deterioration in bond strength.
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Design and processing of low alloy high carbon steels by powder metallurgy. P/M processing and liquid phase sintering of newly designed low-alloy high carbon steels based on Fe-0.85Mo-C-Si-Mn with high toughness and strength.Wronski, Andrew S.; Abosbaia, Alhadi A.S. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2011-03-31)The work presented has the ultimate aim to increase dynamic mechanical properties by improvements in density and optimisation of microstructure of ultra high carbon PM steels by careful selection of processes, i.e. mixing, binding, alloying, heating profile and intelligent heat treatment. ThermoCalc modelling was employed to predict liquid phase amounts for two different powder grades, Astaloy 85Mo or Astaloy CrL with additive elements such as (0.4-0.6wt%)Si, (1.2-1.4wt%)C and (1-1.5wt%)Mn, in the sintering temperature range 1285-1300ºC and such powder mixes were pressed and liquid phase sintered. In high-C steels carbide networks form at the prior particle boundaries, leading to brittleness, unless the steel is heat-treated. To assist the breaking up of these continuous carbide networks, 0.4-0.6% silicon, in the form of silicon carbide, was added. The water gas shift reaction (C + H2O = CO + H2, start from ~500ºC) and Boudouard reaction (from ~500ºC complete ~930ºC) form CO gas in the early part of sintering and can lead to large porosity, which lowers mechanical properties. With the use of careful powder drying, low dew point atmospheres and optimisation of heating profiles, densities in excess of 7.70g/cm3 were attained. The brittle microstructure, containing carbide networks and free of cracks, is transformed by intelligent heat treatment to a tougher one of ferrite plus sub-micron spheroidised carbides. This gives the potential for production of components, which are both tough and suitable for sizing to improve dimensional tolerance. Yield strengths up to 410 MPa, fracture strengths up to 950 MPa and strains of up to 16 % were attained. Forging experiments were subsequently carried out for spheroidised specimens of Fe-0.85Mo+06Si+1.4C, for different strain rates of 10-3, 10-2, 10-1 and 1sec-1 and heated in argon to 700¿C, density ~7.8g/cm3 and 769 MPa yield strength were obtained.
An experimental study of relative structural fire behaviour and robustness of different types of steel joint in restrained steel framesWang, Y.C.; Dai, Xianghe; Bailey, C.G. (2011-07)This paper describes the experimental results of ten fire tests on medium-scale restrained steel sub-frames to investigate the relative behaviour and robustness of different types of steel joint in steel framed structures in fire. The ten fire tests were designed to investigate the effects of two column sizes (simulating two different levels of axial restraint to the connected beam) and five different types of joint, including fin plate, web cleat, flush endplate, flexible endplate and extended endplate connections. Each test frame, in the form of “rugby goalpost” consisting of one beam and two columns, was connected through two identical beam to column joints. All the steelwork was unprotected except for the top flange of the beam which was protected to simulate the effect of a concrete slab in reducing the beam top flange temperature. The column ends were restrained to examine the effects of axial restraint on the beam and the joints. This paper presents the observations of structural fire behaviour, including joint failure modes and beam limiting temperatures, the development of deflections at beam middle span and axial forces in the joints at elevated temperatures. The main conclusions are: (1) failure (fracture) was observed only in joints when the beam was in catenary action and a variety of joint failure modes were observed which provides valuable data in understanding joint behaviour; (2) the medium-scale steel beams were able to undergo very large deflections View the MathML source without failure; (3) the specimens with stronger connections such as extended endplate reached higher than their limiting temperatures, defined as the beam bottom flange temperature at middle span at which the axial load in the beam returned to zero. But the difference in beam limiting temperatures using different types of joint is small, less than 50 °C; also the column size had little effect (less than 30 °C) on the beam limiting temperature; (4) the beams connected to the larger column experienced less deflections, but higher axial force due to the higher axial restraint to the beam, which led to fracture of the joint components in these tests; in contrast, the lighter columns visibly deformed and formed plastic hinges at the joints, but there was little evidence of connection fracture in the test frames using the light columns; (5) the web cleat connection appears to have the best performance.
Fire performance of innovative steel-concrete composite columns using high strength steelsEspinos, A.; Romero, M.L.; Lam, Dennis (2016)This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation on strategies for enhancing the fire behaviour of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns by using inner steel profiles such as circular hollow sections (CHS), HEB profiles or embedded steel core profiles. A three-dimensional finite element model is developed for that purpose, which is capable for representing the various types of sections studied and the nonlinear behaviour of the materials at elevated temperatures. High strength steel is considered in the numerical model, as a possible way to lengthen the fire endurance. The numerical model is validated against experimental results available in the literature for various types of steel-concrete composite sections using inner steel profiles, obtaining satisfactory results. Based on the developed numerical model, parametric studies are conducted for investigating the influence of the cross-sectional geometry and the steel grade of the inner profiles on the fire performance of these composite columns, for eventually providing some practical recommendations.