Muslims as Minorities in non-Muslim Lands with Specific Reference to the Hanafi Law School and Britain. A social and legal study of Muslims living as a minority in Europe, particularly Britain; focussing on how traditional Islam facilitates Muslims to practice their faith within this secular context.
AuthorMohammed, Amjad M.
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Lifelong Education and Development
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractIn the 21st century Muslims can be found as minorities in what can be described as secular, democratic western countries. The research presented in this study will trace the process by which this community arrived in Western Europe and in particular Britain. Furthermore, it will explain how the community developed its faith identity within this context by detailing three particular stances they have adopted, namely; assimilation, isolation, integration. The thesis argues that rather than the assumption which exists that applying Traditional Islam causes Muslims to isolate from the indigenous population and form a ¿state within a state¿ it actually gives the religious confidence and identity to integrate within the wider society. The study also focuses on Islamic Law as interpreted by the ¿anaf¿ Law school and highlights in detail the multi-pronged and robust nature of its legal theory and subsequent application. There is an opportunity whilst determining the context to challenge the so-called ¿classical¿ Islam¿s view of the world, especially the view that all non-Muslim lands are d¿r al-¿arb. The research details a novel understanding of the classical view and discusses how the state¿s attitude towards Islam and Muslims determines its territorial ruling. In conclusion, the study has shown that the traditional interpretive model inherently possesses the flexibility, relevance and applicability to take into consideration minority-status of Muslims in Britain adhering to the ¿anaf¿ Law School. This is manifest by the ability this model has to deal with contemporary issues in wide ranging subjects like Medicine, Politics and Finance As a result it facilitates their integration within this secular society whilst remaining true to their faith.
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Effect of the Muslim Headscarf on Face Perception. A series of psychological experiments looking at how the Muslim headscarf influences the perception of (South Asian) faces.Keeble, David R.T.; Bryant, Eleanor J.; Horrocks, Christine; Toseeb, Mohammed U. (University of BradfordBradford School of Optometry and Vision Science, 2013-04-05)The Muslim headscarf conceals the hair and other external features of a face. For this reason it may have implications for the recognition of such faces. The experiments reported in this thesis aimed to investigate anecdotal reports, which suggested that headscarf wearing females are more difficult to recognise. This was done by employing a series of experiments which involved a yes/no recognition task. The stimuli that were used were images of South Asian females who were photographed wearing a Muslim headscarf (HS), with their own hair visible (H), and a third set of stimuli were produced in which their external features were cropped (CR). Most importantly, participants either took part in the condition in which the state of the external features remained the same between the learning and test stage (Same) or the condition in which they were switched between the two stages (Switch). In one experiment participants completed a Social Contact Questionnaire. Surprisingly, in the Same condition, there was no difference in the recognition rates of faces that were presented with hair, with headscarf, or cropped faces. However, participants in the Switch condition performed significantly worse than those in the Same condition. It was also found that there was no difference in the % of fixations to the external features between the Same and Switch condition, which implied that the drop in performance between the two conditions was not mediated by eye-movements. These results suggest that the internal and external features of a face are processed interactively and, although the external features were not fixated on, a manipulation to them caused a drop in performance. This was confirmed in a separate experiment in which participants were unable to ignore the external features when they were asked to judge the similarity of the internal features of pairs of faces. Pairs of headscarf faces were rated as being more similar compared to pairs of faces with hair. Finally, for one group of participants it was found that contact with headscarf-wearing females was positively correlated with the recognition of headscarf-wearing faces. It was concluded that the headscarf per se did not impair face recognition and that there is enough information in the internal features of a face for optimal recognition, however, performance was disrupted when the presence or absence of the headscarf was manipulated.