Muslims as Minorities in non-Muslim Lands with Specific Reference to the Hanafi Law School and Britain. A social and legal study of Muslims living as a minority in Europe, particularly Britain; focussing on how traditional Islam facilitates Muslims to practice their faith within this secular context.
AuthorMohammed, Amjad M.
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Lifelong Education and Development
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AbstractIn the 21st century Muslims can be found as minorities in what can be described as secular, democratic western countries. The research presented in this study will trace the process by which this community arrived in Western Europe and in particular Britain. Furthermore, it will explain how the community developed its faith identity within this context by detailing three particular stances they have adopted, namely; assimilation, isolation, integration. The thesis argues that rather than the assumption which exists that applying Traditional Islam causes Muslims to isolate from the indigenous population and form a ¿state within a state¿ it actually gives the religious confidence and identity to integrate within the wider society. The study also focuses on Islamic Law as interpreted by the ¿anaf¿ Law school and highlights in detail the multi-pronged and robust nature of its legal theory and subsequent application. There is an opportunity whilst determining the context to challenge the so-called ¿classical¿ Islam¿s view of the world, especially the view that all non-Muslim lands are d¿r al-¿arb. The research details a novel understanding of the classical view and discusses how the state¿s attitude towards Islam and Muslims determines its territorial ruling. In conclusion, the study has shown that the traditional interpretive model inherently possesses the flexibility, relevance and applicability to take into consideration minority-status of Muslims in Britain adhering to the ¿anaf¿ Law School. This is manifest by the ability this model has to deal with contemporary issues in wide ranging subjects like Medicine, Politics and Finance As a result it facilitates their integration within this secular society whilst remaining true to their faith.
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Young British Pakistani Muslim women’s involvement in higher educationHussain, I.; Johnson, Sally E.; Alam, M. Yunis (2017-11-01)This article explores the implications for identity through presenting a detailed analysis of how three British Pakistani women narrated their involvement in higher education. The increased participation of British South Asian women in higher education has been hailed a major success story and is said to have enabled them to forge alternative, more empowering gender identities in comparison to previous generations. Drawing on generative narrative interviews conducted with three young women, we explore the under-researched area of Pakistani Muslim women in higher education. The central plotlines for their stories are respectively higher education as an escape from conforming to the ‘good Muslim woman’; becoming an educated mother; and Muslim women can ‘have it all’. Although the women narrated freedom to choose, their stories were complex. Through analysis of personal ‘I’ and social ‘We’ self-narration, we discuss the different ways in which they drew on agency and fashioned it within social and structural constraints of gender, class and religion. Thus higher education is a context that both enables and constrains negotiations of identity.