Bayesian opponent modeling in adversarial game environments.
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KeywordsOpponent modelingImperfect information gamesPokerNeuroevolutionEvolutionary algorithmCoevolutionBayesian analysis
Permissions© 2010 Baker, R. J. S. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share-Alike License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk).
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentDepartment of Computing
This thesis investigates the use of Bayesian analysis upon an opponent¿s behaviour in order to determine the desired goals or strategy used by a given adversary. A terrain analysis approach utilising the A* algorithm is investigated, where a probability distribution between discrete behaviours of an opponent relative to a set of possible goals is generated. The Bayesian analysis of agent behaviour accurately determines the intended goal of an opponent agent, even when the opponent¿s actions are altered randomly. The environment of Poker is introduced and abstracted for ease of analysis. Bayes¿ theorem is used to generate an effective opponent model, categorizing behaviour according to its similarity with known styles of opponent. The accuracy of Bayes¿ rule yields a notable improvement in the performance of an agent once an opponent¿s style is understood. A hybrid of the Bayesian style predictor and a neuroevolutionary approach is shown to lead to effective dynamic play, in comparison to agents that do not use an opponent model. The use of recurrence in evolved networks is also shown to improve the performance and generalizability of an agent in a multiplayer environment. These strategies are then employed in the full-scale environment of Texas Hold¿em, where a betting round-based approach proves useful in determining and counteracting an opponent¿s play. It is shown that the use of opponent models, with the adaptive benefits of neuroevolution aid the performance of an agent, even when the behaviour of an opponent does not necessarily fit within the strict definitions of opponent ¿style¿.