IS-implementation: a tri-motors theory of organizational change. Case study of how an IT-enabled process of organizational change because of the presence of a teleological, life-cycle, and dialectical motor unfolds within a Dutch government organization.
Spicer, David P.
KeywordIT-enabled organizational change
Tri-motors ideal-type process theory
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Management
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AbstractThe reason for the study is that IT-enabled organizational change processes such as information system implementations have high costs and disappointing results. Studies to identify causes of the mentioned failures are mainly based on a variance approach. This study applies another approach which is not yet performed in this field of research and affects several themes. Based on a process approach data is compared with ideal-process theories to identify the generative mechanisms causing the unfolding of the process. Thus, the study identifies a recipe and not the ingredients.
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Effect before cause: supramodal recalibration of sensorimotor timingHeron, James; Hanson, James Vincent Michael; Whitaker, David J. (2009)Our motor actions normally generate sensory events, but how do we know which events were self generated and which have external causes? Here we use temporal adaptation to investigate the processing stage and generality of our sensorimotor timing estimates. Methodology/Principal Findings: Adaptation to artificially-induced delays between action and event can produce a startling percept¿upon removal of the delay it feels as if the sensory event precedes its causative action. This temporal recalibration of action and event occurs in a quantitatively similar manner across the sensory modalities. Critically, it is robust to the replacement of one sense during the adaptation phase with another sense during the test judgment. Conclusions/Significance: Our findings suggest a high-level, supramodal recalibration mechanism. The effects are well described by a simple model which attempts to preserve the expected synchrony between action and event, but only when causality indicates it is reasonable to do so. We further demonstrate that this model successfully characterises related adaptation data from outside the sensorimotor domain.
Endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling induces casein kinase 1-dependent formation of cytosolic TDP-43 Inclusions in motor neuron-like cellsHicks, D.A.; Cross, Laura L.; Williamson, Ritchie; Rattray, Marcus (2019)Motor neuron disease (MND) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment. One of the principal pathological hallmarks is the deposition of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 aggregation occurs in both familial and sporadic MND; however, the mechanism of endogenous TDP-43 aggregation in disease is incompletely understood. This study focused on the induction of cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous TDP-43 in the motor neuronal cell line NSC-34. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressor tunicamycin induced casein kinase 1 (CK1)-dependent cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous TDP-43 in differentiated NSC-34 cells, as seen by immunocytochemistry. Immunoblotting showed that induction of ER stress had no effect on abundance of TDP-43 or phosphorylated TDP-43 in the NP-40/RIPA soluble fraction. However, there were significant increases in abundance of TDP-43 and phosphorylated TDP-43 in the NP-40/RIPA-insoluble, urea-soluble fraction, including high molecular weight species. In all cases, these increases were lowered by CK1 inhibition. Thus ER stress signalling, as induced by tunicamycin, causes CK1-dependent phosphorylation of TDP-43 and its consequent cytosolic accumulation.
Disruptions to human speed perception induced by motion adaptation and transcranial magnetic stimulation.Burton, Mark P.; McKeefry, Declan J.; Barrett, Brendan T.; Vakrou, Chara; Morland, A.B. (Wiley, 2009-11)To investigate the underlying nature of the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on speed perception, we applied repetitive TMS (rTMS) to human V5/MT+ following adaptation to either fast- (20 deg/s) or slow (4 deg/s)-moving grating stimuli. The adapting stimuli induced changes in the perceived speed of a standard reference stimulus moving at 10 deg/s. In the absence of rTMS, adaptation to the slower stimulus led to an increase in perceived speed of the reference, whilst adaptation to the faster stimulus produced a reduction in perceived speed. These induced changes in speed perception can be modelled by a ratio-taking operation of the outputs of two temporally tuned mechanisms that decay exponentially over time. When rTMS was applied to V5/MT+ following adaptation, the perceived speed of the reference stimulus was reduced, irrespective of whether adaptation had been to the faster- or slower-moving stimulus. The fact that rTMS after adaptation always reduces perceived speed, independent of which temporal mechanism has undergone adaptation, suggests that rTMS does not selectively facilitate activity of adapted neurons but instead leads to suppression of neural function. The results highlight the fact that potentially different effects are generated by TMS on adapted neuronal populations depending upon whether or not they are responding to visual stimuli.