Human resource development : training and development practices and related organisational factors in Kuwaiti organisations.
AuthorAl-Ali, Adnan A.S.
Joint venture sector
Training and development
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
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AbstractThis study examines and aims to disclose the current policies and practices of Training and Development (T&D) within Kuwaiti government and private/joint-venture organisations. The literature review indicates that although much attention has been devoted in studying Training and Development practices, a very few focus on T&D related factors on organisation performance in developing countries. The literature also indicates the need for considering these factors in order to have a better T&D effectiveness, and hence organisation overall performance. In this study the Training for Impact model was adopted and tested within Kuwaiti context in terms of training needs assessment and evaluation and follow-up. This research uses data collected from 100 organisations in Kuwait. 50 of these were government and 50 private /joint venture listed in Kuwait Stock Exchange. Therefore, all managers (100 training personnel) who are in charge of T&D function/programmes, were samples of the respondents of the present study. The main data collection methods adopted by this study were interviews (semi-structured) and "drop-in and pick-up" self-completion questionnaires. The data were quantitatively analysed and triangulation of quantitative findings was carried out in order to find out the difference between the two sectors in Kuwait in terms of T&D practices and related factors. To establish a causal connection between related factors and identified dimensions (T&D effectiveness, organisational rating, and satisfaction with evaluation process), a multiple regression technique was employed. The major findings of this study are noted below: Results indicate that the majority of the investigated organisations do not have a formal T&D system. T&D programmes are still carried out on a piecemeal basis rather than a systematic long-term policy. Findings which were common among the majority of the approached organisations were absence of a systematic organisational training needs analysis, use of conventional training methods, lack of effective procedures for T&D evaluation. The study explores the training personnel's way of thinking towards their T&D function and to the proposed T&D dimensions framework (integrated HRD strategy, top and line management commitment, a supportive formal system, T&D mechanism, organisational culture, and training budget). The findings indicate that most of the training personnel perceived these dimensions as providing motivation, commitment and support to their T&D function. Six main factors were found to influence T&D practices in government and private/joint venture organisations. These factors are: top management commitment, mutual support between organisational philosophy and T&D activities, line management support T&D involvement in organisation strategy, T&D policies and plans, and T&D effects on employees self-development. The study also identifies T&D effects on organisation performance in Kuwaiti organisations in terms of eliminating problems; increasing commitment and motivation; fulfilling individual needs and personal objectives, improving interpersonal and interdepartmental relations, improving quality of goods and services; and leading to effective utilisation and investment in human resources. In addition the study establishes a causal connection of T&D related factors with performance dimensions, organisation rating, and satisfaction of T&D evaluation. The author recommends that for the T&D function to be treated as seriously as other organisational functions, then Kuwaiti training personnel, as well as top and line management, need to be more willing to play proactive and strategic organisational roles in T&D activities.
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Evaluation of a leadership development programme. Developing a ¿fit for purpose¿ model to evaluate a leadership development programme at the individual, departmental and organisational levels within the BBCOstell, Alistair; Hayward, Ian C. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2010-04-08)The research was aimed at addressing the challenge of evaluating a large scale change intervention in a large organisation and in a complex environment. Finding robust, meaningful yet realistic methodologies from among the array of possible approaches, methods and techniques has proved problematic, for both organisational practitioners and academics alike. The research explored this issue of choice from the perspective of ¿fit for purpose¿ and suggests a multi-faceted approach, using a range of evaluation methods and techniques, which were applied to an ongoing example at the BBC. It was also planned to use structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques to examine the relationships between variables critical to the study. The approach described represents a ¿pilot¿ evaluation exercise, which drew on data collected from early cohorts going through the BBC Leadership Programme, a key element of the ¿Making it Happen¿ change strategy initiated by the then Director General, Mr. Greg Dyke. As a second level of research, an evaluation of the primary evaluation itself, i.e. of the BBC Leadership Programme, was also undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the primary evaluation strategy and its implementation. Three hypotheses were examined in terms of programme impact: It was proposed that participation in the programme would bring about collective improvements in individual leadership behaviour (Ho1), leading to improved departmental performance across the business (Ho2), in turn, resulting in improved organisational performance (Ho3). Due to limitations in the application of the methodology it was not possible to use SEM analyses on the data collected. Alternative analyses failed to demonstrate conclusive support for all three hypotheses and, while other factors besides programme attendance appear to influence leadership performance the afore-mentioned limitations restrict the ability to draw firm conclusions. Following evaluation of the primary evaluation it was evident that, as a pilot exercise, important outcomes from the programme evaluation give rise to ¿lessons learned¿ and changes are suggested for any future evaluation exercise of this kind.
Development of a Dry Powder Inhaler and Nebulised Nanoparticle-Based Formulations of Curcuminoids for the Potential Treatment of Lung Cancer. Development of Drug Delivery Formulations of Curcuminoids to the Lungs using Air Jet Milling and Sonocrystallisation Techniques for Dry Powder Inhaler Preparations; and Nanoemulsion and Microsuspension for Nebuliser FormulationsAssi, Khaled H.; Paradkar, Anant R.; Al Ayoub, Yuosef (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2017)Curcuminoids have strong anticancer activities but have low bioavailability. The highest rate of cancer deaths comes from lung tumours; therefore, inhaled curcuminoids could treat lung cancer locally. To date, there are no nebulised formulations of curcuminoids, and there are no inhalable curcuminoids particles without excipients using air jet mill and sonocrystallisation methods for DPI formulations. It is the first time; the aerodynamic parameters of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were measured individually using NGI. The size, shape, free surface energy, and the crystal polymorphism of the produced inhalable curcuminoid particles were characterised using laser diffraction, SEM, IGC, DSC and XRPD, respectively. Several DPI formulations with a variable particle size of curcuminoids were prepared in two drug-carrier ratios (1:9 and 1:67.5). The best performance of the DPI formulations of the sonocrystallised particles, which exist in crystal structure form1, were obtained from ethanol- heptane, as illustrated FPF 43.4%, 43.6% and 43.4% with MMAD of 3.6µm, 3.5µm and 3.4µm, whereas the best DPI formulation of the air jet milled particles was presented FPF 38.0%, 38.9%, and 39.5% with MMAD of 3.6µm, 3.4µm and 3.2µm for curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, respectively. Nebulised curcuminoids using nanoemulsion and microsuspension formulations were prepared. The physical properties, such as osmolality, pH and the viscosity of the aerosolised nanoemulsion and the microsuspension formulations were determined. The FPF% and MMAD of nebulised nanoemulsion ranged from 44% to 50% and from 4.5µm to 5.5µm respectively. In contrast, the FPF% of microsuspension ranged from 26% to 40% and the MMAD from 5.8µm to 7.05µm. A HPLC method was developed and validated in order to be used in the determination of curcuminoids from an aqueous solution.
Identifying the best practice in traditional and electronic banking operations strategies in developing economies. (The case of Jordan). Balancing resources with customer expectations in rapidly developing business environment.Barber, Kevin D.; Beach, Roger; Migdadi, Yazan K.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2011-11-18)The aim of this study is to identify the best practices in traditional and electronic banking operations strategy in Jordan as a case study of developing economies over the period 1999 to 2008. During this period numerous changes faced banks in Jordan: new banking law was launched, the banks were directed towards complying with the Basel Accord II, and the banks adopted more e-banking channels. Only the practices of all local banks were investigated due to their superior performance. A number of questionnaires were used to collect the data from different individuals in these banks. Further, annual reports were analysed and websites were reviewed. Two data-analysis approaches were used to identify the key strategies of traditional and electronic banking in Jordan: competitive position analysis and cluster analysis. Analysis revealed eight best practices of traditional banking and four best practices of electronic banking were adopted. Best practices are presented as prediction models. These models combine actions with capabilities and performance. The traditional banking predication models are: branches urban accessibility, branches sites accessibility (percentage of sites covered), branches sites accessibility (number of branches sites covered), account transaction time, new credit product flexibility, account customer waiting time, account transaction cost, loan approval costs, and branches layout quality. The e-banking prediction models are: Internet banking transaction time, telephone banking volume flexibility, ATM suburban accessibility, and ATM sites accessibility. This research revealed that; financial performance achieved by e-banking strategy patterns is significantly lower than traditional banking. Also customers satisfaction, retention, and deposit market of e-banking are significantly lower than traditional banking, which indicates that the best operational practices in Jordan are still more traditional oriented despite the significant direction of banks in Jordan toward adopting e-banking channel.