3D Facial Feature Extraction and Recognition. An investigation of 3D face recognition: correction and normalisation of the facial data, extraction of facial features and classification using machine learning techniques.
AuthorAl-Qatawneh, Sokyna M.S.
SupervisorIpson, Stanley S.
Qahwaji, Rami S.R.
KeywordMachine learning techniques
3D face databases
3D face recognition
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Computing, Informatics & Media
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractFace recognition research using automatic or semi-automatic techniques has emerged over the last two decades. One reason for growing interest in this topic is the wide range of possible applications for face recognition systems. Another reason is the emergence of affordable hardware, supporting digital photography and video, which have made the acquisition of high-quality and high resolution 2D images much more ubiquitous. However, 2D recognition systems are sensitive to subject pose and illumination variations and 3D face recognition which is not directly affected by such environmental changes, could be used alone, or in combination with 2D recognition. Recently with the development of more affordable 3D acquisition systems and the availability of 3D face databases, 3D face recognition has been attracting interest to tackle the limitations in performance of most existing 2D systems. In this research, we introduce a robust automated 3D Face recognition system that implements 3D data of faces with different facial expressions, hair, shoulders, clothing, etc., extracts features for discrimination and uses machine learning techniques to make the final decision. A novel system for automatic processing for 3D facial data has been implemented using multi stage architecture; in a pre-processing and registration stage the data was standardized, spikes were removed, holes were filled and the face area was extracted. Then the nose region, which is relatively more rigid than other facial regions in an anatomical sense, was automatically located and analysed by computing the precise location of the symmetry plane. Then useful facial features and a set of effective 3D curves were extracted. Finally, the recognition and matching stage was implemented by using cascade correlation neural networks and support vector machine for classification, and the nearest neighbour algorithms for matching. It is worth noting that the FRGC data set is the most challenging data set available supporting research on 3D face recognition and machine learning techniques are widely recognised as appropriate and efficient classification methods.
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Method of modelling facial action units using partial differential equationsUgail, Hassan; Ismail, N.B. (2016)In this paper we discuss a novel method of mathematically modelling facial action units for accurate representation of human facial expressions in 3- dimensions. Our method utilizes the approach of Facial Action Coding System (FACS). It is based on a boundary-value approach, which utilizes a solution to a fourth order elliptic Partial Differential Equation (PDE) subject to a suitable set of boundary conditions. Here the PDE surface generation method for human facial expressions is utilized in order to generate a wide variety of facial expressions in an efficient and realistic way. For this purpose, we identify a set of boundary curves corresponding to the key features of the face which in turn define a given facial expression in 3-dimensions. The action units (AUs) relating to the FACS are then efficiently represented in terms of Fourier coefficients relating to the boundary curves which enables us to store both the face and the facial expressions in an efficient way.
Facial Analysis for Real-Time Application: A Review in Visual Cues Detection TechniquesYap, Moi Hoon; Ugail, Hassan; Zwiggelaar, R. (2012-11-30)Emerging applications in surveillance, the entertainment industry and other human computer interaction applications have motivated the development of real-time facial analysis research covering detection, tracking and recognition. In this paper, the authors present a review of recent facial analysis for real-time applications, by providing an up-to-date review of research efforts in human computing techniques in the visible domain. The main goal is to provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers, regardless of specific research areas, involved in real-time facial analysis. First, the authors undertake a thorough survey and comparison in face detection techniques. In this survey, they discuss some prominent face detection methods presented in the literature. The performance of the techniques is evaluated by using benchmark databases. Subsequently, the authors provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of facial expressions analysis and the importance of psychology inherent in facial expression analysis. During the last decades, facial expressions analysis has slowly evolved into automatic facial expressions analysis due to the popularity of digital media and the maturity of computer vision. Hence, the authors review some existing automatic facial expressions analysis techniques. Finally, the authors provide an exemplar for the development of a facial analysis real-time application and propose a model for facial analysis. This review shows that facial analysis for real-time application involves multi-disciplinary aspects and it is important to take all domains into account when building a reliable system.
Towards the Development of an Efficient Integrated 3D Face Recognition System. Enhanced Face Recognition Based on Techniques Relating to Curvature Analysis, Gender Classification and Facial Expressions.Ugail, Hassan; Yap, Moi Hoon; Han, Xia (University of BradfordDepartment of Electronic Imaging and Media Communication, 2012-01-25)The purpose of this research was to enhance the methods towards the development of an efficient three dimensional face recognition system. More specifically, one of our aims was to investigate how the use of curvature of the diagonal profiles, extracted from 3D facial geometry models can help the neutral face recognition processes. Another aim was to use a gender classifier employed on 3D facial geometry in order to reduce the search space of the database on which facial recognition is performed. 3D facial geometry with facial expression possesses considerable challenges when it comes face recognition as identified by the communities involved in face recognition research. Thus, one aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the curvature-based method in face recognition under expression variations. Another aim was to develop techniques that can discriminate both expression-sensitive and expression-insensitive regions for ii face recognition based on non-neutral face geometry models. In the case of neutral face recognition, we developed a gender classification method using support vector machines based on the measurements of area and volume of selected regions of the face. This method reduced the search range of a database initially for a given image and hence reduces the computational time. Subsequently, in the characterisation of the face images, a minimum feature set of diagonal profiles, which we call T shape profiles, containing diacritic information were determined and extracted to characterise face models. We then used a method based on computing curvatures of selected facial regions to describe this feature set. In addition to the neutral face recognition, to solve the problem arising from data with facial expressions, initially, the curvature-based T shape profiles were employed and investigated for this purpose. For this purpose, the feature sets of the expression-invariant and expression-variant regions were determined respectively and described by geodesic distances and Euclidean distances. By using regression models the correlations between expressions and neutral feature sets were identified. This enabled us to discriminate expression-variant features and there was a gain in face recognition rate. The results of the study have indicated that our proposed curvature-based recognition, 3D gender classification of facial geometry and analysis of facial expressions, was capable of undertaking face recognition using a minimum set of features improving efficiency and computation.