A comparative microscopic study of human and non-human long bone histology.
AuthorNor, Faridah M.
Haversian canal area
Human long bones
Human skeleton remains
Non-human skeletal remains
Human age estimation
Rights© 2009 Nor, F. M. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share-Alike License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk).
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentDepartment of Archaeological Sciences
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractIdentification of human or nonhuman skeletal remains is important in assisting the police and law enforcement officers for the investigation of forensic cases. Identification of bone can be difficult, especially in fragmented remains. It has been reported that 25 to 30% of medicolegal cases, which involved nonhuman skeletal remains have been mistaken for human. In such cases, histomorphometric method was used to identify human and nonhuman skeletal remains. However, literature has shown that histomorphometric data for human and nonhuman bone were insufficient. Additionally, age estimation in bone may help in the identification of human individual, which can be done by using a histomorphometric method. Age estimation is based on bone remodeling process, where microstructural parameters have strong correlations with age. Literature showed that age estimation has been done on the American and European populations. However, little work has been done in the Asian population. The aims of this project were thus, to identify human and nonhuman bone, and to estimate age in human bones by using histomorphometric analysis. In this project, 64 human bones and 65 animal bones were collected from the mortuary of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and the Zoos in Malaysia, respectively. A standard bone preparation was used to prepare human and nonhuman bone thin sections for histomorphometric assessment. Assessments were made on the microstructural parameters such as cortical thickness, medullary cavity diameter, osteon count, osteon diameter, osteon area, osteon perimeter, Haversian canal diameter, Haversian canal area, Haversian canal perimeter, and Haversian lamella count per osteon by using image analysis, and viewed under a transmitted light microscope. The microstructural measurements showed significant differences between human and nonhuman samples. The discriminant functions showed correct classification rates for 81.4% of cases, and the accuracy of identification was 96.9% for human and 66.2% for animal. Human age estimation showed a standard error of estimate of 10.41 years, comparable with those in the literature. This study project offers distinct advantages over currently available histomorphometric methods for human and nonhuman identification and human age estimation. This will have significant implications in the assessment of fragmentary skeletal and forensic population samples for identification purposes.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
An investigation into the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles.Anderson, Diana; Dhawan, A.; Sharma, Vyom (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2012-04-19)The wide scale use of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in the world consumer market has resulted in likelihood of exposure to human beings. The present study was aimed to assess the in vitro and in vivo interactions of ZnO NPs in the mammalian system and to elucidate the possible mechanism of their toxicity. Our in vitro results using human epidermal cells (A431), primary human epidermal keratinocytes and human liver cells (HepG2) demonstrated that cells exposed to ZnO NPs exhibit a decrease in cell viability which was independent of NP dissolution. ZnO NPs also induced oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by an increase in the Fpg sensitive sites. The reactive oxygen species triggered a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 leading to apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. In addition, ZnO NPs induced phosphorylation of JNK, P38 and P53ser15. The results from our in vivo studies using a mouse model showed that ZnO NPs induce lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in liver which further confirmed our in vitro findings. The data from the present study provide valuable insights into the cellular interactions of ZnO NPs and the underlying molecular mechanism of their toxicity. The results also stress the need for a comprehensive environmental health and safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials to ensure safer nanotechnology based products.
Child Trafficking: A Case of South SudanFrancis, David J.; Pankhurst, Donna T.; Akuni, B.A. Job (University of BradfordDivision of Peace Studies, School of Social and International Studies, 2013)The question regarding what makes child trafficking persistent in conflict and post-war settings has been subject to intense debate. The human trafficking literature makes general conclusions that trafficking is a by-product of civil wars, and in the process child traffickers exploit the breakdown of the rule of law. As such it is perceived that the governance of the problem of child trafficking can be effective whenever peace and stability is realised and when legal frameworks for protecting children are in place. Prompted by these assertions, I conducted a field study in South Sudan, a country emerging from one of Africa’s longest running and most brutal civil wars fought between the government in Khartoum and Sudanese Peoples Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A). The Sudan’s civil wars ended after the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005. Whilst the termination of the war raised expectations that the international anti-trafficking conventions, treaties and customary laws protecting children would have enforcement powers and would guarantee the rights and safety of the child, the peace failed to deliver on these expectations. Based on empirical data obtained through an intensive micro-level qualitative research conducted in South Sudan over three months, the research findings reveal that a number of challenges pose serious difficulties in enforcing international counter-trafficking legislations and child protection instruments. These challenges are compounded by the interplay of the emerging socio-economic and political development in the post-independent South Sudan.
Two plasmid-encoded genes of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain K798 promote invasion and survival within HEp-2 cellsBurska, Urszula L.; Fletcher, Jonathan N. (2014)Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are considered to be extracellular pathogens, inducing attaching and effacing lesions following their attachment to the surface of eukaryotic cells; however, in vitro and in vivo invasion by EPEC has been reported in several studies. A cloned 4.6 kb fragment of EPEC plasmid pLV501 has been shown to facilitate invasion of E. coli K-12, and here we further investigate the nature of this process. Two of the three complete open reading frames contained within the plasmid fragment have been cloned to E. coli, and in HEp-2 adherence assays both tniA2 and pecM were shown to be expressed during the first 3 h of infection from a plac promoter. Escherichia coli transformants carrying pecM alone or in combination with tniA2 were able to both survive intracellularly and escape eukaryotic cells to re-establish themselves within the medium, whereas those bacterial cells carrying tniA2 alone could not be isolated from within HEp-2 cells after 24 h of infection, but were present in the previously sterile medium surrounding the cells. Bacteria carrying pecM and tniA2 adhered to HEp-2 cells with sites of adhesion characterized by underlying actin polymerization. The invasive potential conferred by these genes may give EPEC strains a survival advantage during prolonged infection.