Globalization and the accountancy profession in developing countries. An examination of the historical developmemt of the Indonesian accountancy profession (1954-2008).
SupervisorHaniffa, Roszaini M.
History of the accountancy profession
Indonesian accountancy profession
Rights© 2010 Irmawan, Y. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share-Alike License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk).
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Management
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AbstractStudies on the development of the accountancy profession in the ex-colony countries have recently adopted theoretical and methodological frameworks that linked such development with the socio-historical context of these countries as former colonies or dependants of the more developed countries. More specifically, they associate the emergence and development of the accountancy profession in these countries with the historical and contemporary global expansion of capitalism. However, there is still a need for further research. First, how global expansion of capitalism penetrates is different across different country settings. Hence, this process would be best understood by incorporating the socio-political, economic and historical specificity of the given country. Second, previous studies emphasize the internal dialectic contradictions of capitalism in analysing the changes and dynamics of the profession in ex-colony countries. Recent literature, however, has introduced methodologies that recognize the need to acknowledge the existence of any rivalling structures as possible external sources of the dialectic progress of capitalist expansion. In regard to this, the socio-political and historical context of Indonesia may offer a case of how the interactions between global expansion of capitalism and existing rivalling structures may shape the development of the accountancy profession. The need for further research is amplified by the fact that previous studies on the Indonesian accountancy profession have generally ignored the influence of these wider socio-political factors. The primary aim of this study is thus to investigate how the accountancy profession has emerged and developed in Indonesia over the last five decades. To achieve its objectives, this research draws insights from the tradition of the globalization theory as a critique to global expansion of capitalism and Robert Cox historical structure methodology. The central argument of this thesis is that the development of the Indonesian accountancy profession followed the changes in the country¿s system of political economy, which in turn has been heavily influenced by the relationship between ex-colony countries with their former colonizers within the context of the capitalistic world order. In other words, this study accepts the contention that the spread of the Western-style accountancy profession across the globe, including Indonesia, was the consequence of global expansion of capitalism. However, the working and the extent of such influence is also shaped by alternative social structure(s) existing at the global level and/or emanating from the complexities of the Indonesian historical and societal context. To substantiate this argument, the study uses document analysis to understand the development of the Indonesian accountancy profession during the three main periods in its history. In the first period (1954 ¿ 1966), the analysis shows that the Westernization of the accounting profession was compromised by Indonesian nationalism, ideological division amongst the Indonesian leaders and the Cold War. In the second period (1967 ¿ 1997), the process was compromised by the oligarchic capitalism of the New Order political regime. The Westernization of the profession could only reach full speed after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which has undermined the politico-business coalitions under the New Order that had prevented Indonesia from fully integrating into the global capitalist economic order.
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Valuing and managing brands: An internal accounting perspective. An empirical investigation of attitudes to internal brand valuation and organisational and behavioural implications associated with the way that the internal brand management accounting system is operated.Pike, Richard H.; Guilding, Christopher J. (University of BradfordThe Management Centre, 2009-11-03)This thesis is concerned with accounting for the brand management function. Two distinct perspectives are taken: the first derives from aspects of organisational and behavioural accounting research, and the second concerns organisational implications of brand valuation. Both perspectives were initially approached by means of exploratory interviews and a literature review. Hypotheses pertaining to the first perspective were analysed via survey data collected in nine strongly-branded, fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) companies. Propositions concerned with the implications of brand valuation were developed and used as the basis for measuring attitudes to brand valuation. A questionnaire concerned with brand valuation attitudes was administered to senior-ranking officials in strongly-branded, FMCG companies. The final methodological phase, for both perspectives, involved a case study conducted in a strongly-branded, FMCG company. Significant findings arising from this study include: 1) Managers who see their company as being short-termist, hold more positive attitudes to brand valuation. 2) Marketing-orientated managers are more favourably disposed to brand valuation than accounting-orientated managers. 3) Organisational benefits arising from brand valuation are more strategically, than operationally, orientated. 4) Brand manager budget participation is significantly negatively-related to job-related tension, and positivelyrelated to trust in superior and attitude to reliance on accounting performance measures. 5) Budget participation is more effective in reducing jobrelated tension in situations of high, compared to low, task uncertainty situations. 6) Reliance on a brand manager's accounting performance is positively related to brand manager performance and motivation, and negatively associated with job-related tension.
Intellectual capital, management accounting practices and corporate performance: Perceptions of managers.Tayles, Mike E.; Pike, Richard H.; Sofian, S. (2007)Purpose ¿ The purpose of the paper was to examine whether, and in what way, managers perceive that the level and shape of intellectual capital (IC) within firms influences management accounting practice, specifically, performance measurement, planning and control, capital budgeting, and risk management. It also explores whether such firms are better able to respond to unanticipated economic and market changes and achieve relatively higher performance within their sector. Design/methodology/approach ¿ The paper is based on the results of a study conducted in Malaysia through a questionnaire survey in 119 large companies with varying levels of IC and selected interviews with both accounting and non-accounting executives in a subset of them. Findings ¿ The findings in the paper suggest some evolution in management accounting practices for firms investing heavily in IC. The findings are discussed and further explored through interviews in some of the firms analysed. Research limitations/implications ¿ The limitations of survey research in this paper are acknowledged, however these are ameliorated by confirmatory insights from the interviews. Further research could be carried out using more extensive case studies in companies, perhaps longitudinally, or undertaken using sector focused surveys. Practical implications ¿ It is important to show in the paper that management accounting systems reflect the strategic orientation of the companies concerned. Where a greater focus on intangibles and intellectual capital occurs it may require a different emphasis on management accounting practices compared to companies where they do not feature strongly. It is important that management recognise and act on this in order to improve corporate performance. Originality/value ¿ The paper shows that it is widely recognised that (IC), whether in the form of knowledge, experience, professional skill, good relationships, or technological capacity is a major source of corporate competitive advantage. Whilst the literature places considerable attention on the valuation, measurement and reporting of IC for external reporting purposes, far less attention has so far been given to the implications of IC for managerial accounting practice. This paper addresses this omission.