Evaluation of novel tool to ensure asthma and COPD patients use the approved inhalation technique when they use an inhaler. Clinical pharmacy studies investigating the impact of novel inhalation technique training devices and spacers on the inspiratory characteristics, disease control and quality of life of patients when using their inhalers.
AuthorAmmari, Wasem G.S.
Smythe, James W.
Specific disease outcomes
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentBradford School of Pharmacy
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AbstractMany respiratory patients misuse their inhaler. Although training improves their inhaler technique, patients do forget the correct inhaler use with time. In the current work, three clinical studies investigated novel tools designed with feedback mechanisms to ensure patients use the correct inhalation method when using their inhaler. Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained and all the participants signed an informed consent form. In the first study, the recruited asthmatic children (n=17) and adults (n=39) had their metered dose inhaler (MDI) technique assessed. Those who attained the recommended inhalation flow rate (IFR) of < 90 l/min through their MDI formed the control group. Whilst those who had a poor MDI technique with an IFR ¿ 90 l/min were randomized into either the verbal counselling (VC) group; or the 2ToneTrainer (2TT) group that, in addition to the verbal training, received the 2ToneTrainer MDI technique training device equipped with an audible feedback mechanism of correct inhalation flow. All the participants were assessed on two occasions (6 weeks apart) for their inhalation flow rate, asthma control and quality of life. The study showed that the 2ToneTrainer tool was as efficient as verbal training in improving and maintaining the asthmatic patients¿ MDI technique, particularly using the recommended slow inhalation flow through the MDI. Although statistically insignificant, potential improvement in quality of life was demonstrated. The 2ToneTrainer tool has the advantage of being available to the patients all the time to use when they are in doubt of their MDI technique. In the second research study, the inhalation profiles of asthmatic children (n=58) and adults (n=63), and of COPD patients (n=63) were obtained when they inhaled through the novel Spiromax dry powder inhaler (DPI) which was connected to an electronic pressure change recorder. From these inspiratory profiles; the peak inhalation flow, inhalation volume and inhalation acceleration rate were determined. The variability (23% - 58%) found in these inhalation profile parameters among various patient groups would be expected in all DPIs. The effect of the inhalation acceleration rates and volumes on dose emission characteristics from DPIs should be investigated. Attention, though, should be paid to the patients¿ realistic inhalation profile parameters, rather than the recommended Pharmacopoeial optimal inhalation standard condition, when evaluating the in-vitro performance of DPIs. Finally, in preschool asthmatic children, the routine use of the current AeroChamber Plus spacer (n=9) was compared with that of a novel version; the AeroChamber Plus with Flow-Vu spacer (n=10) over a 12-week period. The Flow-Vu spacer has a visual feedback indicator confirming inhalation and tight mask-face seal. The study showed that the new AeroChamber Plus with Flow-Vu spacer provided the same asthma control as the AeroChamber Plus in preschool children and maintained the same asthma-related quality of life of their parents. However, the parents preferred the new Flow-Vu spacer because its visual feedback indicator of inhalation reassured them that their asthmatic children did take their inhaled medication sufficiently.
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Investigations to identify the influence of the inhalation manoeuvre on the ex-vivo dose emission and the in-vitro aerodynamic dose emission characteristics of dry powder inhalers: Studies to identify the influence of inhalation flow, inhalation volume and the number of inhalations per dose on the ex-vivo dose emission and the in-vitro aerodynamic dose emission characteristics of dry powder inhalers.Chrystyn, Henry; Assi, Khaled H.; Ibn Yakubu, Sani (University of BradfordInstitute of Pharmaceutical Innovation, 2011-04-04)Currently available dry powder inhalers (DPIs) for drug delivery to the lungs require turbulent energy to generate and disperse aerosol particles in the respirable range ¿5¿m during inhalation. The patient's inspiratory effort together with the resistance inside the device creates this energy. Different inhalers provide varying degrees of resistance to inhalation flow and require different inhalation techniques for the generation and delivery of drug fine particles in respirable size range to the lungs. The aim of this research programme was to identify the influence of inhalation flow, inhalation volume and the number of inhalations per dose on the ex-vivo dose emission and the in-vitro aerodynamic dose emission characteristics of the salbutamol Accuhaler®, Easyhaler®, and Clickhaler® and the terbutaline Turbuhaler® DPIs. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the assay of salbutamol sulphate and terbutaline sulphate in aqueous samples was modified and accordingly validated. In-vitro dose emission of the four different DPIs was measured using the pharmacopoeia method with modifications to simulate varying inhalation flows within patient and between patients. The ranges of the total emitted dose (% nominal dose) at the inhalation flow range of 10 - 60 Lmin-1, following one and two inhalations per metered dose for 2L and 4L inhaled volumes were as follows: the Accuhaler (52.64- 85.11; 61.88-85.11 and 59.23-85.11; 62.81-85.11); the Easyhaler (68.35-91.99; 79.94-91.99 and 73.83-92.51; 80.40-92.51); the Clickhaler (46.55-96.49; 51.12-96.49 and 51.18-101.39; 59.71-101.39) as well as the Turbuhaler (46.08-88.13; 51.95-88.13 and 48.05-89.22; 48.64-89.22). The results highlight that the four inhalers have flow-dependent dose emission property to a varying degree using 2L and 4 L inhaled volumes. There was no significant difference in the total emitted dose between a 2L inhaled volume and a 4L inhaled volume at each inhalation flow. Furthermore, the total emitted dose from the Easyhaler®, Clickhaler®, and Turbuhaler® was significantly (p¿0.001) greater with two inhalations than one inhalation per metered dose across the range of inhalation flow (10 ¿ 60) Lmin-1. This effect was only observed at inhalation flow less than 30 Lmin-1 with the Accuhaler®. Overall there is a significant difference in the total emitted dose. The ex-vivo dose emission of the four different DPIs has been determined using the In- Check Dial device to train twelve non-smoking healthy adult volunteers to inhale at slow (30 Lmin-1) and fast (60 L min-1) inhalation flows through the device with its dial set corresponding to each inhaler. Subsequently each volunteer inhaled at the trained inhalation flows through each active inhaler. The local ethics committee approval was obtained prior to the study and all volunteers gave signed informed consent. The results obtained demonstrate that the studied inhalers have flow-dependent dose emission, thereby enhancing confidence in the use of the In-Check Dial® to identify a patient¿s inhalation flows through a variety of DPIs. Also the total emitted dose determined by ex-vivo methodology was significantly (p¿0.05) greater with two inhalations than one inhalation per metered dose. The results of the in-vitro aerodynamic dose emission characteristics highlight that the fine particle dose (FPD) from the four studied inhalers is flow dependent. Also the minimum inhalation flow to generate the (FPD) with the appropriate characteristics for lung deposition has been identified to be 20 L min-1 for the Accuhaler®, Easyhaler® and Clickhaler®, while that for the Turbuhaler® is about 30 L min-1. Also the inhalation volume above 2L and the number of inhalations for each dose have respectively no significant (p¿0.05) influence on the FPD emitted from the four studied inhalers. The results support the present instructions to patients using these inhalers to inhale once for each dose as fast as they can.
Ex vivo and in vitro evaluation of the influence of the inhaler device and formulation on lung deposition of budesonideAloum, Fatima; Al Ayoub, Yuosef; Mohammad, Mohammad A.; Obeed, Muthana; Paluch, Krzysztof J.; Assi, Khaled H. (2020-07-15)Two different types of dry powder inhalers (Easyhaler® and RS01®) were used in this work to evaluate the ex vivo and in vitro performance of a budesonide inhaled formulation with recrystallised mannitol, commercial DPI-grade mannitol, or lactose. The aerodynamic performance of the budesonide formulation with recrystallised mannitol was superior when RS01® was used (FPF = 45.8%) compared to Easyhaler® (FPF = 14%). However, the aerodynamic profile was very poor in both devices when commercial mannitol was used. Interestingly, the aerosol performance of the marketed budesonide formulation significantly improved when RS01® was used compared to Easyhaler® (the original device for the formulation). Due to the significant increases in the surface energy of the commercial mannitol formulation, the aerodynamic performance of the formulation was very poor. This work demonstrates the impact of inhaler devices on the performance of inhaled formulations and considers the particle surface energy during formulation development.
Performance of two different types of inhalers. Influence of flow and spacer on emitted dose and aerodynamic characterisation.Clark, Brian J.; Chrystyn, Henry; Almeziny, Mohammed A.N. (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2010-05-14)This thesis is based around examination of three mainstream inhaled drugs Formoterol, Budesonide and Beclomethasone for treatment of asthma and COPD. The areas investigated are these which have been raised in reports and studies, where there are concern, for drug use and assessment of their use. In reporting this work the literature study sets out a brief summary of the background and anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system and then discuses the mechanism of drug deposition in the lung, as well as the methods of studying deposition and pulmonary delivery devices. This section includes the basis of asthma and COPD and its treatment. In addition, a short section is presented on the role of the pharmacist in improving asthma and COPD patient¿s care. Therefore the thesis is divided into 3 parts based around formoterol, budesonide and beclomethasone. In the first case the research determines the in-vitro performance of formoterol and budesonide in combination therapy. In the initial stage a new rapid, robust and sensitive HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous assay of formoterol and the two epimers of budesonide which are pharmacologically active. In the second section, the purpose was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics for a combination of formoterol and the two epimers of budesonide at inhalation flow rates of 28.3 and 60 L/min. The aerodynamic characteristics of the emitted dose were measured by an Anderson cascade impactor (ACI) and the next generation cascade impactor (NGI). In all aerodynamic characterisations, the differences between flow rates 28.3 and 60 were statistically significant in formoterol, budesonide R and budesonide S, while the differences between ACI and NGI at 60 were not statistically significant. Spacers are commonly used especially for paediatric and elderly patients. However, there is considerable discussion about their use and operation. In addition, the introduction of the HFAs propellants has led to many changes in the drug formulation characteristics. The purpose of the last section is to examine t h e performance of different types of spacers with different beclomethasone pMDIs. Also, it was to examine the hypothesis of whether the result of a specific spacer with a given drug/ brand name can be extrapolated to other pMDIs or brand names for the same drug. The results show that there are different effects on aerodynamic characterisation and there are significant differences in the amount of drug available for inhalation when different spacers are used as inhalation aids. Thus, the study shows that the result from experiments with a combination of a spacer and a device cannot be extrapolated to other combination.