Novel sugar phosphorus ylides: Their synthesis, structure and reactivity. Synthesis of a series of sugar-derived phosphorus ylides from protected sugar derivatives and beta-oxo ylides as a route to novel alkynes and trioxo compounds.
AuthorSahabo, Nina Carole
KeywordSugar phosphorus ylides
ß,ß'-dioxo sugar-derived phosphorus ylides
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Life Sciences
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AbstractHigher carbon chain sugars have gained increased interest recently; they are important building blocks of natural and unnatural products with biological properties. The synthesis of these higher sugar skeletons is commonly known to be achieved with the Wittig methodology which exploits phosphorus ylide chemistry. This method has been successfully used for the synthesis of the higher carbon sugars. The aim of this project was to synthesise ß,ß'-dioxo sugar-derived phosphorus ylides, a new class of ylides, as versatile intermediates to valuable higher carbon sugar derivatives and carbohydrate mimics. Model reactions were initially conducted; tetrahydro-2-furoic acid and tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-carboxylic acid, compounds which are structurally similar to the precursor sugars, were identified as suitable model compounds. These compounds were converted to acyl chlorides and then converted to ß,ß'-dioxo phosphorus ylides precursors by acylation. The methodology proved successful and 8 examples were isolated. However, low yields were obtained due to the inevitable formation of triphenylphosphine oxide. The method was then extended to sugar derivatives, prepared using standard protecting group chemistry. It was found that acylation could be achieved using the simple acyl chloride route or peptide coupling methodology for sugar derivatives which were acid sensitive. ß,ß'-dioxo sugar-derived phosphorus ylides (16 examples) were successfully isolated in low yields. The oxidation and thermal reactivity of the ß,ß'-dioxo ylides were studied. Oxidation resulted in the successful synthesis of vicinal tricarbonyls, isolated as a mixture with the gem-diols (hydrates). The thermal decomposition of the ylides gave alkynes in moderate yields.
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A solid-state NMR study of molecular mobility and phase separation in co-spray-dried protein-sugar particlesForbes, Robert T.; Apperley, D.C.; Suihko, E.J. (2005)Molecular mobility and physical form of co-spray-dried sugar¿lysozyme formulations were evaluated. Co-spray-dried trehalose:lysozyme and sucrose:lysozyme formulations in 1:9, 1:1 and 9:1 ratios (w:w) were stored at 0% RH and 75% RH for 5¿6 days. Molecular mobility and physical form of the co-spray-dried formulations after storage were determined by using 13C and 1H solid-state NMR as well as X-ray powder diffractometry. The results showed that increasing sugar content in co-spray-dried formulations stored at 0% RH decreased molecular mobility of the amorphous formulations indicating a close association of the protein and sugar. Exposure of sugar¿lysozyme 1:1 and 9:1 formulations to 75% RH led to separation of sugar and protein phases, where the sugar phase was crystalline. The intimate sugar¿lysozyme interaction of the formulations stored at 0% RH and the phase separation of the sugar-rich formulations stored at 75% RH were also confirmed by using 13C solid-state NMR spin-lattice relaxation time-filter (T1-filter) measurements. The propensity of sucrose and trehalose to crystallise was similar; however, the results suggest that part of the sugar in the phase-separated formulations remained amorphous and in close association with lysozyme.
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