Modelling and optimisation of batch distillation involving esterification and hydrolysis reaction systems. Modelling and optimisation of conventional and unconventional batch distillation process: Application to esterification of methanol and ethanol using acetic acid and hydrolysis of methyl lactate system.
SupervisorMujtaba, Iqbal M.
KeywordConventional batch distillation
Inverted batch distillation
Batch reactive distillation
Fixed product demand
Dynamic modelling and optimisation
Rights© 2010 Edreder, E. A. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share-Alike License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk).
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBatch distillation with chemical reaction when takes place in the same unit is referred to as batch reactive distillation process. The combination reduces the capital and operating costs considerably. Among many different types of batch reactive distillation column configurations, (a) conventional (b) inverted (c) semi-batch columns are considered here. Three reaction schemes such as (a) esterification of methanol (b) esterification of ethanol (c) hydrolysis of methyl lactate are studied here. Four different types of dynamic optimisation problems such as (a) maximum conversion (b) maximum productivity (c) maximum profit and (d) minimum time are formulated in this work. Optimal design and or operation policies are obtained for all the reaction schemes. A detailed rigorous dynamic model consisting of mass, energy balances, chemical reaction and thermodynamic properties is considered for the process. The model was incorporated within the dynamic optimisation problems. Control Vector Parameterisation (CVP) technique was used to convert the dynamic optimisation problem into a nonlinear programming problem which was solved using efficient SQP (Successive Quadratic Programming) method available within the gPROMS (general PROcess Modelling System) software. It is observed that multi-reflux ratio or linear reflux operation always led to better performance in terms of conversion, productivity for all reaction schemes compared to that obtained using single reflux operation. Feed dilution (in the case of ethanol esterification) led to more profit even though productivity was found to be lower. This was due to reduction in feed price because of feed dilution. Semi-batch reactive distillation opertation (for ethanol esterification) led to better conversion compared to conventional batch distillation, however, the total amount of acetic acid (reactant) was greater in semi-batch operation. Optimisation of design and operation (for ethanol esterification) clearly showed that a single cloumn will not lead to profitable operation for all possible product demand profile. Also change in feed and /or product price may lead to adjust the production target to maximise the profitability. In batch distillation, total reflux operation is recommended or observed at the begining of the operation (as is the case for methnaol or ethanol esterification). However, in the case of hydrolysis, total reflux operation was obseved at the end of the operation. This was due to lactic acid (being the heaviest) was withrawn as the final bottom product.
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Optimal design and operation of multivessel batch distillation with fixed product demand. Modelling, simulation and optimisation of design and operation parameters in multivessel batch distillation under fixed product demand scenario and strict product specifications using simple dynamic model in gPROMS.Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Mahmud, Mohamed Taher Mustafa (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2010-09-28)Increased interest in unconventional batch distillation column configurations offers new opportunities for increasing the flexibility and energy efficiency of batch distillation. One configuration of particular interest is multivessel batch distillation column, which can be viewed as a generalization of all previously studied batch column configuration. In this work, for the first time the optimal design and operation tasks are developed for multivessel batch distillation with strict product specifications under fixed product demand. Also, in this work, two different operation schemes defined as STN (State Task Network) in terms of the option and numbers of off-cuts were considered for binary and ternary separation. Both the vapour load and number of stages in each column section together with the production sequence are optimised to achieve maximum profit function. The performance of the multivessel batch distillation column is evaluated against the performance of conventional batch column with a simple dynamic model using binary and ternary mixtures. It has been found that profitability improves with the multivessel system in both separations. gPROMS, a user-friendly, software is used for the modeling, simulation, and optimisation.
Optimisation of design and operation policies of binary batch distillation with fixed product demand.Miladi, M.M.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2004)Optimal design (vapour load, V and number of stages, N) and operation (reflux ratio, R and batch time, tb) of batch distillation have received significant attention in recent years. In these studies, it has been suggested that V should be set at some upper limit (thought to be optimum) and the optimisation task should be focused on finding the optimum values of N, R and tb, which would minimise the capital investment while maximising an economic objective function usually the profit (P). The major drawback of such optimisation strategy is that there is no constraint on the amount of product (on specification) being produced (NB = no. of batches in a given time) and the overall profit can only be maximised by producing unlimited amount of products. Unplanned and unlimited production of products are not sustainable and may lead to significant losses in the case of large inventory requirements of any excess products produced. In this work, for the first time, the optimal design and operation task for batch distillation is considered with due regards to the market demands (small to large number of batches) of the products being produced. An optimisation problem formulation is presented for the task which is different than those used in the past under unlimited product demand scenario. Simulated Annealing type algorithm is used for the solution of the optimisation problem. With several examples, it will be shown that fixing V a priori (say V < Vopt) will not allow production of NB batches of products with any combination of (N, R, tb) in a given production time. Also it will be shown that with V fixed at say V > Vopt, P will always be <Pmax for any combination of (N, R, tb). The comparisons between the results with and without fixing of V a priori show very clear improvement in the annual profit.
Improvement of multicomponent batch reactive distillation under parameter uncertainty by inferential state with model predictive controlWeerachaipichasgul, W.; Kittisupakorn, P.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2013)Batch reactive distillation is aimed at achieving a high purity product, therefore, there is a great deal to find an optimal operating condition and effective control strategy to obtain maximum of the high purity product. An off-line dynamic optimization is first performed with an objective function to provide optimal product composition for the batch reactive distillation: maximum productivity. An inferential state estimator (an extended Kalman filter, EKF) based on simplified mathematical models and on-line temperature measurements, is incorporated to estimate the compositions in the reflux drum and the reboiler. Model Predictive Control (MPC) has been implemented to provide tracking of the desired product compositions subject to simplified model equations. Simulation results demonstrate that the inferential state estimation can provide good estimates of compositions. Therefore, the control performance of the MPC with the inferential state is better than that of PID. In addition, in the presence of unknown/uncertain parameters (forward reaction rate constant), the estimator is still able to provide accurate concentrations. As a result, the MPC with the inferential state is still robust and applicable in real plants.