Performance Modelling and Evaluation of Active Queue Management Techniques in Communication Networks. The development and performance evaluation of some new active queue management methods for internet congestion control based on fuzzy logic and random early detection using discrete-time queueing analysis and simulation.
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AuthorAbdel-Jaber, Hussein F.
SupervisorWoodward, Mike E.
KeywordActive Queue Management
Quality of Service
Random Early Detection
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media
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AbstractSince the field of computer networks has rapidly grown in the last two decades, congestion control of traffic loads within networks has become a high priority. Congestion occurs in network routers when the number of incoming packets exceeds the available network resources, such as buffer space and bandwidth allocation. This may result in a poor network performance with reference to average packet queueing delay, packet loss rate and throughput. To enhance the performance when the network becomes congested, several different active queue management (AQM) methods have been proposed and some of these are discussed in this thesis. Specifically, these AQM methods are surveyed in detail and their strengths and limitations are highlighted. A comparison is conducted between five known AQM methods, Random Early Detection (RED), Gentle Random Early Detection (GRED), Adaptive Random Early Detection (ARED), Dynamic Random Early Drop (DRED) and BLUE, based on several performance measures, including mean queue length, throughput, average queueing delay, overflow packet loss probability, packet dropping probability and the total of overflow loss and dropping probabilities for packets, with the aim of identifying which AQM method gives the most satisfactory results of the performance measures. This thesis presents a new AQM approach based on the RED algorithm that determines and controls the congested router buffers in an early stage. This approach is called Dynamic RED (REDD), which stabilises the average queue length between minimum and maximum threshold positions at a certain level called the target level to prevent building up the queues in the router buffers. A comparison is made between the proposed REDD, RED and ARED approaches regarding the above performance measures. Moreover, three methods based on RED and fuzzy logic are proposed to control the congested router buffers incipiently. These methods are named REDD1, REDD2, and REDD3 and their performances are also compared with RED using the above performance measures to identify which method achieves the most satisfactory results. Furthermore, a set of discrete-time queue analytical models are developed based on the following approaches: RED, GRED, DRED and BLUE, to detect the congestion at router buffers in an early stage. The proposed analytical models use the instantaneous queue length as a congestion measure to capture short term changes in the input and prevent packet loss due to overflow. The proposed analytical models are experimentally compared with their corresponding AQM simulations with reference to the above performance measures to identify which approach gives the most satisfactory results. The simulations for RED, GRED, ARED, DRED, BLUE, REDD, REDD1, REDD2 and REDD3 are run ten times, each time with a change of seed and the results of each run are used to obtain mean values, variance, standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals. The performance measures are calculated based on data collected only after the system has reached a steady state. After extensive experimentation, the results show that the proposed REDD, REDD1, REDD2 and REDD3 algorithms and some of the proposed analytical models such as DRED-Alpha, RED and GRED models offer somewhat better results of mean queue length and average queueing delay than these achieved by RED and its variants when the values of packet arrival probability are greater than the value of packet departure probability, i.e. in a congestion situation. This suggests that when traffic is largely of a non bursty nature, instantaneous queue length might be a better congestion measure to use rather than the average queue length as in the more traditional models.
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Entropy Maximisation and Queues With or Without Balking. An investigation into the impact of generalised maximum entropy solutions on the study of queues with or without arrival balking and their applications to congestion management in communication networks.Kouvatsos, Demetres D.; Fretwell, Rod J.; Shah, Neelkamal P. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2014)An investigation into the impact of generalised maximum entropy solutions on the study of queues with or without arrival balking and their applications to congestion management in communication networks Keywords: Queues, Balking, Maximum Entropy (ME) Principle, Global Balance (GB), Queue Length Distribution (QLD), Generalised Geometric (GGeo), Generalised Exponential (GE), Generalised Discrete Half Normal (GdHN), Congestion Management, Packet Dropping Policy (PDP) Generalisations to links between discrete least biased (i.e. maximum entropy (ME)) distribution inferences and Markov chains are conjectured towards the performance modelling, analysis and prediction of general, single server queues with or without arrival balking. New ME solutions, namely the generalised discrete Half Normal (GdHN) and truncated GdHN (GdHNT) distributions are characterised, subject to appropriate mean value constraints, for inferences of stationary discrete state probability distributions. Moreover, a closed form global balance (GB) solution is derived for the queue length distribution (QLD) of the M/GE/1/K queue subject to extended Morse balking, characterised by a Poisson prospective arrival process, i.i.d. generalised exponential (GE) service times and finite capacity, K. In this context, based on comprehensive numerical experimentation, the latter GB solution is conjectured to be a special case of the GdHNT ME distribution. ii Owing to the appropriate operational properties of the M/GE/1/K queue subject to extended Morse balking, this queueing system is applied as an ME performance model of Internet Protocol (IP)-based communication network nodes featuring static or dynamic packet dropping congestion management schemes. A performance evaluation study in terms of the model’s delay is carried out. Subsequently, the QLD’s of the GE/GE/1/K censored queue subject to extended Morse balking under three different composite batch balking and batch blocking policies are solved via the technique of GB. Following comprehensive numerical experimentation, the latter QLD’s are also conjectured to be special cases of the GdHNT. Limitations of this work and open problems which have arisen are included after the conclusions
Control of queueing delay in a buffer with time-varying arrival rate.Awan, Irfan U.; Guan, Lin; Woodward, Mike E. (2006)Quality of Service (QoS) is of extreme importance in accommodating the increasingly diverse range of services and types of traffic in present day communication networks and delay is one of the most important QoS metrics. This paper presents a new approach for constraining queueing delay in a buffer to a specified level as the arrival rate changes with time. A discrete-time control algorithm is presented that operates on a buffer (queue) which incorporates a moveable threshold. An algorithm is developed that controls the delay by dynamically adjusting the threshold which, in turn, controls the arrival rate. The feasibility of the system is examined using both theoretical analysis and simulation.
A discrete-time performance model for congestion control mechanism using queue thresholds with QOS constraintsGuan, Lin; Woodward, Mike E.; Awan, Irfan U. (2005)This paper presents a new analytical framework for the congestion control of Internet traffic using a queue threshold scheme. This framework includes two discrete-time analytical models for the performance evaluation of a threshold based congestion control mechanism and compares performance measurements through typical numerical results. To satisfy the low delay along with high throughput, model-I incorporates one threshold to make the arrival process step reduce from arrival rate ¿1 directly to ¿2 once the number of packets in the system has reached the threshold value L1. The source operates normally, otherwise. Model-II incorporates two thresholds to make the arrival rate linearly reduce from ¿1 to ¿2 with system contents when the number of packets in the system is between two thresholds L1 and L2. The source operates normally with arrival rate ¿1 before threshold L1, and with arrival rate ¿2 after the threshold L2. In both performance models, the mean packet delay W, probability of packet loss PL and throughput S have been found as functions of the thresholds and maximum drop probability. The performance comparison results for the two models have also been made through typical numerical results. The results clearly demonstrate how different load settings can provide different tradeoffs between throughput, loss probability and delay to suit different service requirements.