Performance Modelling and Evaluation of Active Queue Management Techniques in Communication Networks. The development and performance evaluation of some new active queue management methods for internet congestion control based on fuzzy logic and random early detection using discrete-time queueing analysis and simulation.
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AuthorAbdel-Jaber, Hussein F.
SupervisorWoodward, Mike E.
KeywordActive Queue Management
Quality of Service
Random Early Detection
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media
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AbstractSince the field of computer networks has rapidly grown in the last two decades, congestion control of traffic loads within networks has become a high priority. Congestion occurs in network routers when the number of incoming packets exceeds the available network resources, such as buffer space and bandwidth allocation. This may result in a poor network performance with reference to average packet queueing delay, packet loss rate and throughput. To enhance the performance when the network becomes congested, several different active queue management (AQM) methods have been proposed and some of these are discussed in this thesis. Specifically, these AQM methods are surveyed in detail and their strengths and limitations are highlighted. A comparison is conducted between five known AQM methods, Random Early Detection (RED), Gentle Random Early Detection (GRED), Adaptive Random Early Detection (ARED), Dynamic Random Early Drop (DRED) and BLUE, based on several performance measures, including mean queue length, throughput, average queueing delay, overflow packet loss probability, packet dropping probability and the total of overflow loss and dropping probabilities for packets, with the aim of identifying which AQM method gives the most satisfactory results of the performance measures. This thesis presents a new AQM approach based on the RED algorithm that determines and controls the congested router buffers in an early stage. This approach is called Dynamic RED (REDD), which stabilises the average queue length between minimum and maximum threshold positions at a certain level called the target level to prevent building up the queues in the router buffers. A comparison is made between the proposed REDD, RED and ARED approaches regarding the above performance measures. Moreover, three methods based on RED and fuzzy logic are proposed to control the congested router buffers incipiently. These methods are named REDD1, REDD2, and REDD3 and their performances are also compared with RED using the above performance measures to identify which method achieves the most satisfactory results. Furthermore, a set of discrete-time queue analytical models are developed based on the following approaches: RED, GRED, DRED and BLUE, to detect the congestion at router buffers in an early stage. The proposed analytical models use the instantaneous queue length as a congestion measure to capture short term changes in the input and prevent packet loss due to overflow. The proposed analytical models are experimentally compared with their corresponding AQM simulations with reference to the above performance measures to identify which approach gives the most satisfactory results. The simulations for RED, GRED, ARED, DRED, BLUE, REDD, REDD1, REDD2 and REDD3 are run ten times, each time with a change of seed and the results of each run are used to obtain mean values, variance, standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals. The performance measures are calculated based on data collected only after the system has reached a steady state. After extensive experimentation, the results show that the proposed REDD, REDD1, REDD2 and REDD3 algorithms and some of the proposed analytical models such as DRED-Alpha, RED and GRED models offer somewhat better results of mean queue length and average queueing delay than these achieved by RED and its variants when the values of packet arrival probability are greater than the value of packet departure probability, i.e. in a congestion situation. This suggests that when traffic is largely of a non bursty nature, instantaneous queue length might be a better congestion measure to use rather than the average queue length as in the more traditional models.
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Some Active Queue Management Methods for Controlling Packet Queueing Delay. Design and Performance Evaluation of Some New Versions of Active Queue Management Schemes for Controlling Packet Queueing Delay in a Buffer to Satisfy Quality of Service Requirements for Real-time Multimedia Applications.Woodward, Mike E.; Mohamed, Mahmud H. Etbega (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2010-03-10)Traditionally the Internet is used for the following applications: FTP, e-mail and Web traffic. However in the recent years the Internet is increasingly supporting emerging applications such as IP telephony, video conferencing and online games. These new applications have different requirements in terms of throughput and delay than traditional applications. For example, interactive multimedia applications, unlike traditional applications, have more strict delay constraints and less strict loss constraints. Unfortunately, the current Internet offers only a best-effort service to all applications without any consideration to the applications specific requirements. In this thesis three existing Active Queue Management (AQM) mechanisms are modified by incorporating into these a control function to condition routers for better Quality of Service (QoS). Specifically, delay is considered as the key QoS metric as it is the most important metric for real-time multimedia applications. The first modified mechanism is Drop Tail (DT), which is a simple mechanism in comparison with most AQM schemes. A dynamic threshold has been added to DT in order to maintain packet queueing delay at a specified value. The modified mechanism is referred to as Adaptive Drop Tail (ADT). The second mechanism considered is Early Random Drop (ERD) and, iii in a similar way to ADT, a dynamic threshold has been used to keep the delay at a required value, the main difference being that packets are now dropped probabilistically before the queue reaches full capacity. This mechanism is referred to as Adaptive Early Random Drop (AERD). The final mechanism considered is motivated by the well known Random Early Detection AQM mechanism and is effectively a multi-threshold version of AERD in which packets are dropped with a linear function between the two thresholds and the second threshold is moveable in order to change the slope of the dropping function. This mechanism is called Multi Threshold Adaptive Early Random Drop (MTAERD) and is used in a similar way to the other mechanisms to maintain delay around a specified level. The main focus with all the mechanisms is on queueing delay, which is a significant component of end-to-end delay, and also on reducing the jitter (delay variation) A control algorithm is developed using an analytical model that specifies the delay as a function of the queue threshold position and this function has been used in a simulation to adjust the threshold to an effective value to maintain the delay around a specified value as the packet arrival rate changes over time. iv A two state Markov Modulated Poisson Process is used as the arrival process to each of the three systems to introduce burstiness and correlation of the packet inter-arrival times and to present sudden changes in the arrival process as might be encountered when TCP is used as the transport protocol and step changes the size of its congestion window. In the investigations it is assumed the traffic source is a mixture of TCP and UDP traffic and that the mechanisms conserved apply to the TCP based data. It is also assumed that this consists of the majority proportion of the total traffic so that the control mechanisms have a significant effect on controlling the overall delay. The three mechanisms are evaluated using a Java framework and results are presented showing the amount of improvement in QoS that can be achieved by the mechanisms over their non-adaptive counterparts. The mechanisms are also compared with each other and conclusions drawn.
General queueing network models for computer system performance analysis. A maximum entropy method of analysis and aggregation of general queueing network models with application to computer systems.Kouvatsos, Demetres D.; El-Affendi, Mohamed A. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Computing, 2009-10-23)In this study the maximum entropy formalism [JAYN 57] is suggested as an alternative theory for general queueing systems of computer performance analysis. The motivation is to overcome some of the problems arising in this field and to extend the scope of the results derived in the context of Markovian queueing theory. For the M/G/l model a unique maximum entropy solution., satisfying locALl balance is derived independent of any assumptions about the service time distribution. However, it is shown that this solution is identical to the steady state solution of the underlying Marko-v process when the service time distribution is of the generalised exponential (CE) type. (The GE-type distribution is a mixture of an exponential term and a unit impulse function at the origin). For the G/M/1 the maximum entropy solution is identical in form to that of the underlying Markov process, but a GE-type distribution still produces the maximum overall similar distributions. For the GIG11 model there are three main achievements: first, the spectral methods are extended to give exaft formulae for the average number of customers in the system for any G/G/l with rational Laplace transform. Previously, these results are obtainable only through simulation and approximation methods. (ii) secondly, a maximum entropy model is developed and used to obtain unique solutions for some types of the G/G/l. It is also discussed how these solutions can be related to the corresponding stochastic processes. (iii) the importance of the G/GE/l and the GE/GE/l for the analysis of general networks is discussed and some flow processes for these systems are characterised. For general queueing networks it is shown that the maximum entropy solution is a product of the maximum entropy solutions of the individual nodes. Accordingly, existing computational algorithms are extended to cover general networks with FCFS disciplines. Some implementations are suggested and a flow algorithm is derived. Finally, these results are iised to improve existing aggregation methods. In addition, the study includes a number of examples, comparisons, surveys, useful comments and conclusions.
Control of queueing delay in a buffer with time-varying arrival rate.Awan, Irfan U.; Guan, Lin; Woodward, Mike E. (2006)Quality of Service (QoS) is of extreme importance in accommodating the increasingly diverse range of services and types of traffic in present day communication networks and delay is one of the most important QoS metrics. This paper presents a new approach for constraining queueing delay in a buffer to a specified level as the arrival rate changes with time. A discrete-time control algorithm is presented that operates on a buffer (queue) which incorporates a moveable threshold. An algorithm is developed that controls the delay by dynamically adjusting the threshold which, in turn, controls the arrival rate. The feasibility of the system is examined using both theoretical analysis and simulation.