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dc.contributor.advisorRoberts, Charlotte A.
dc.contributor.authorLewis, Mary Elizabeth*
dc.date.accessioned2010-01-18T16:51:51Z
dc.date.available2010-01-18T16:51:51Z
dc.date.issued2010-01-18T16:51:51Z
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/4196
dc.description.abstractThis study compares the morbidity and mortality of non-adults in urban and rural cemeteries between AD 850-1859 It was hypothesised that the development of urbanisation and industrialisation with subsequenot overcrowding and environmental pollution, would result in a decline in human health in the urban groups. This would be evident in lower mean ages at death, retarded growth and higher rates of childhood stress and chronic infection in the children living in the urbanised environments. Non-adult skeletons were examined from Raunds Furnells in Northamptonshire (Anglo- Saxon), St. Helen-on-the-Walls in York (later medieval, urban), Wharrarn Percy in Yorkshire (later medieval, rural) and from the crypt of Christ Church Spitalfields, in London (AD 1729-1859). The results showed that it was industrialisation, rather than urbanisation that was most detrimental to child health. Weaning ages declined from two years in the Anglo-Saxon period to one year in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Industrialisation was characterised by a lower mean age at death, growth retardation and an increase in the prevalence of rickets and scurvy. Although higher rates of dental disease and matemal stress were apparent in the urbanised samples, respiratory diseases were more common in the rural areas. Growth profiles suggested that environmental factors were similar in the urban and rural communities in the later medieval period. However, there was evidence that employment had a detrimental effect on the health of later medieval apprentices. This study demonstrates the importance of non-adult remains in addressing issues of health and adaptation in the past and, the validity of using skeletal material to measure environmental stress.en
dc.description.sponsorshipUniversity of Bradford Studentshipen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.rights© 1999 Lewis, M. E. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share-Alike License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk).en
dc.subjectMedieval Britainen
dc.subjectNon-adultsen
dc.subjectChildrenen
dc.subjectUrbanen
dc.subjectRuralen
dc.subjectStressen
dc.subjectGrowth retardationen
dc.subjectEnvironmenten
dc.subjectEnglanden
dc.subjectIndustrialisationen
dc.subjectUrbanisationen
dc.subjectPalaeopathologyen
dc.subjectHuman skeletal remainsen
dc.subjectHealth, decliningen
dc.titleThe impact of urbanisation and industrialisation in Medieval and Post-Medieval Britain. An assessment of the morbidity and mortality of non-adult skeletons from the cemeteries of two urban and two rural sites in England (AD 850-1859).en
dc.type.qualificationleveldoctoralen
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Bradfordeng
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Archaeological Sciencesen
dc.typeThesiseng
dc.type.qualificationnamePhDen
dc.date.awarded1999
refterms.dateFOA2018-10-24T01:09:35Z


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