Contribution of aldehyde oxidase, xanthine oxidase and aldehyde dehydro-genase on the oxidation of aromatic aldehydes
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AbstractAliphatic aldehydes have a high affinity toward aldehyde dehydrogenase activity but are relatively poor substrates of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase. In addition, the oxidation of xenobiotic-derived aromatic aldehydes by the latter enzymes has not been studied to any great extent. The present investigation compares the relative contribution of aldehyde dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase, and xanthine oxidase activities in the oxidation of substituted benzaldehydes in separate preparations. The incubation of vanillin, isovanillin, and protocatechuic aldehyde with either guinea pig liver aldehyde oxidase, bovine milk xanthine oxidase, or guinea pig liver aldehyde dehydrogenase demonstrated that the three aldehyde oxidizing enzymes had a complementary substrate specificity. Incubations were also performed with specific inhibitors of each enzyme (isovanillin for aldehyde oxidase, allopurinol for xanthine oxidase, and disulfiram for aldehyde dehydrogenase) to determine the relative contribution of each enzyme in the oxidation of these aldehydes. Under these conditions, vanillin was rapidly oxidized by aldehyde oxidase, isovanillin was predominantly metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and protocatechuic aldehyde was slowly oxidized, possibly by all three enzymes. Thus, aldehyde oxidase activity may be a significant factor in the oxidation of aromatic aldehydes generated from amines and alkyl benzenes during drug metabolism. In addition, this enzyme may also have a role in the catabolism of biogenic amines such as dopamine and noradrenaline where 3-methoxyphenylacetic acids are major metabolites.
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CitationBeedham, C., Panoutsopoulos, G.I. and Kouretas, D. (2004). Contribution of aldehyde oxidase, xanthine oxidase and aldehyde dehydro-genase on the oxidation of aromatic aldehydes. Chemical Research in Toxicology. Vol. 17, No. 10, pp. 1368-1376.
Link to publisher’s versionhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx030059u
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Enzymatic oxidation of vanillin, isovanillin and protocatechuic aldehyde with freshly prepared Guinea pig liver slices.Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I.; Beedham, Christine (2005)Background/Aims: The oxidation of xenobiotic-derived aromatic aldehydes with freshly prepared liver slices has not been previously reported. The present investigation compares the relative contribution of aldehyde oxidase, xanthine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities in the oxidation of vanillin, isovanillin and protocatechuic aldehyde with freshly prepared liver slices. Methods: Vanillin, isovanillin or protocatechuic aldehyde was incubated with liver slices in the presence/absence of specific inhibitors of each enzyme, followed by HPLC. Results: Vanillin was rapidly converted to vanillic acid. Vanillic acid formation was completely inhibited by isovanillin (aldehyde oxidase inhibitor), whereas disulfiram (aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor) inhibited acid formation by 16% and allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) had no effect. Isovanillin was rapidly converted to isovanillic acid. The formation of isovanillic acid was not altered by allopurinol, but considerably inhibited by disulfiram. Protocatechuic aldehyde was converted to protocatechuic acid at a lower rate than that of vanillin or isovanillin. Allopurinol only slightly inhibited protocatechuic aldehyde oxidation, isovanillin had little effect, whereas disulfiram inhibited protocatechuic acid formation by 50%. Conclusions: In freshly prepared liver slices, vanillin is rapidly oxidized by aldehyde oxidase with little contribution from xanthine oxidase or aldehyde dehydrogenase. Isovanillin is not a substrate for aldehyde oxidase and therefore it is metabolized to isovanillic acid predominantly by aldehyde dehydrogenase. All three enzymes contribute to the oxidation of protocatechuic aldehyde to its acid.
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