• Layered ensemble model for short-term traffic flow forecasting with outlier detection

      Abdullatif, Amr R.A.; Rovetta, S.; Masulli, F. (2016-11)
      Real time traffic flow forecasting is a necessary requirement for traffic management in order to be able to evaluate the effects of different available strategies or policies. This paper focuses on short-term traffic flow forecasting by taking into consideration both spatial (road links) and temporal (lag or past traffic flow values) information. We propose a Layered Ensemble Model (LEM) which combines Artificial Neural Networks and Graded Possibilistic Clustering obtaining an accurate forecast of the traffic flow rates with outlier detection. Experimentation has been carried out on two different data sets. The former was obtained from real UK motorway and the later was obtained from simulated traffic flow on a street network in Genoa (Italy). The proposed LEM model for short-term traffic forecasting provides promising results and given the ability for outlier detection, accuracy, robustness of the proposed approach, it can be fruitful integrated in traffic flow management systems.
    • Lean approach in a high mix, low volume manufacturing environment-case study

      Hussain, Anees; Munive-Hernandez, J. Eduardo; Campean, I. Felician (2020-03)
      Market competition is fierce and has been intensified due to globalization, therefore companies have experienced increase pressure to improve cycle and delivery times and achieve a high level of customization. Lean principles have been designed and implemented to respond to market changes. However, these principles are commonly aimed to aid low-mix high-volume (LMHV) manufacturers. This paper aims to develop a systematic approach to implement a lean framework in a high-mix low-volume (HMLV) manufacturing environment. An HMLV manufacturing environment, currently produces a variety of products which differs in terms of shape and size and different sequence of operation and as a much smaller batch size. Additionally, analysis of the manufacturing assembly shows there is a substantial variation in cycle and changeover time from product to product. In this approach, an action based study has been completed. This study uses data collection methods to be applied in order to calculate timings to be used in a Discrete Event Simulation (DES). The simulation uses lean tools to study material movement and facility layout to minimize bottlenecks and eliminate waste from the process. An introduction of lean supermarket is considered within the simulation whereby an operator withdraws products in an specific amount needed by a downstream process before introducing it across the assembly floor and an action plan is created. As a result, a lean manufacturing simulation study has been implemented to evaluate the effects of a supermarket concept within the current manufacturing environment. Initial results show a variation within the cycle and setup times for each of the different products due to the nature of the process. The paper, is limited to applying the approach to a singular production line and a singular manufacturing plant. The practical implications to implement this approach into a manufacturing environment is that there should be a need from the company. This approach should be driven by senior members within the organization as the resistance to change would increase the risk of failure. Another implication of the proposed approach is to ensure the accuracy of the data collected and to introduce a series of briefs within each stage of the approach. This is important as all stakeholders would need to be kept up-to-date with the project. However, the approach is applicable to any organization and can be applied to any sector. This paper, develops a systematic approach to implement a lean framework in a high-mix low-volume (HMLV) manufacturing environment. The approach is validated in an automotive manufacturing organization competing in global markets.
    • Learning and reuse of engineering ramp-up strategies for modular assembly systems

      Scrimieri, Daniele; Oates, R.F.; Ratchev, S.M. (2015-12)
      We present a decision-support framework for speeding up the ramp-up of modular assembly systems by learning from past experience. Bringing an assembly system to the expected level of productivity requires engineers performing mechanical adjustments and changes to the assembly process to improve the performance. This activity is time-consuming, knowledge-intensive and highly dependent on the skills of the engineers. Learning the ramp-up process has shown to be effective for making progress faster. Our approach consists of automatically capturing information about the changes made by an operator dealing with disturbances, relating them to the modular structure of the machine and evaluating the resulting system state by analysing sensor data. The feedback thus obtained on applied adaptations is used to derive recommendations in similar contexts. Recommendations are generated with a variant of the k-nearest neighbour algorithm through searching in a multidimensional space containing previous system states. Applications of the framework include knowledge transfer among operators and machines with overlapping structure and functionality. The application of our method in a case study is discussed.
    • Life modelling of a plastic automotive component

      Campean, I. Felician; Grove, Daniel M.; Henshall, Edwin; Rosala, George F. (2005)
      This paper presents a framework for life prediction modelling and illustrates it with a case study of a plastic automotive component subjected to competing failure mechanisms: wear, leading to a soft failure-degradation of functional performance, and fatigue, leading to loss of function through fracture of a main sub-component. The paper focuses on developing a life prediction model for the fatigue failure mechanism. Structural and kinematic analysis of the component was conducted to identify a suitable substitute load characteristic for the failure mechanism. The aim is to develop an approximate model using limited testing data and when a baseline stress-life model is not available. The issues highlighted by the case study are generic to development of life models for non-critical automotive components, thus providing potentially wide scope for practical application of the approach.
    • Linear Equalisers with Dynamic and Automatic Length Selection.

      Riera-Palou, F.; Noras, James M.; Cruickshank, D.G.M. (2001)
      A simple method for dynamically adjusting the number of taps of linear equalisers operating in unknown channel conditions is presented. Simulations with various scenarios show that the technique successfully predicts the optimum equaliser length and is capable of adjusting it as the environment changes
    • Linearization and first-order expansion of the rocking motion of rigid blocks stepping on viscoelastic foundation

      Palmeri, Alessandro; Makris, N. (2008)
      In structural mechanics there are several occasions where a linearized formulation of the original nonlinear problem reduces considerably the computational effort for the response analysis. In a broader sense, a linearized formulation can be viewed as a first-order expansion of the dynamic equilibrium of the system about a `static¿ configuration; yet caution should be exercised when identifying the `correct¿ static configuration. This paper uses as a case study the rocking response of a rigid block stepping on viscoelastic supports, whose non-linear dynamics is the subject of the companion paper, and elaborates on the challenge of identifying the most appropriate static configuration around which a first-order expansion will produce the most dependable results in each regime of motion. For the regime when the heel of the block separates, a revised set of linearized equations is presented, which is an improvement to the unconservative equations published previously in the literature. The associated eigenvalues demonstrate that the characteristics of the foundation do not affect the rocking motion of the block once the heel separates.
    • Link Budget Maximization for a Mobile-Band Subsurface Wireless Sensor in Challenging Water Utility Environments

      See, Chan H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Atojoko, Achimugu A.; McEwan, Neil J.; Excell, Peter S. (2018-01)
      A subsurface chamber transceiver system and associated propagation channel link budget considerations for an underground wireless sensor system (UWSS) are presented: the application was a sewerage system for a water utility company. The UWSS operates over the GSM850/900, GSM1800/1900 and UMTS bands in order to operate with the standard public mobile phone system. A novel antenna was developed to minimize path loss from the underground location: a folded loop type, which is small enough to fit conveniently inside a utility manhole access chamber while giving adequate signal strength to link to mobile base stations from such a challenging environment. The electromagnetic performance was simulated and measured in both free space and in a real manhole chamber. An experimental test bed was created to determine the return loss and received signal strength with different transceiver positions below the manhole chamber access cover. Both numerical and experimental results suggested an optimum position of the unit inside the manhole, combining easy access for maintenance with viable received signal strength. This confirmed that the characteristics were adequate for incorporation in a transceiver designed to communicate with mobile base stations from underground. A field trial confirmed the successful operation of the system under severe conditions.
    • Liquid level monitoring using passive RFID tags

      Atojoko, Achimugu A.; Bin-Melha, Mohammed S.; Elkhazmi, Elmahdi A.; Usman, Muhammad; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; See, Chan H. (2013)
      Tank flooding have become major causes of pollution both in residential and industrial areas majorly caused by overflows of water(mostly residential) and volatile poisonous industrial liquids from the storage tanks. An effective way of avoiding this problem will be by deploying some mechanism to monitor liquid level at each point in time and escalating unusual liquid levelsto a pump control circuit or to the relevant authorities for prompt action to avoid a flooding occurrence. This paper presents a low cost power efficient liquid level monitoring technique. Passive RFID tags are designed modelled and deployed, the signal variation from the Alien Reader Software are used to effectively estimate the level of liquid in any surface or underground tank. The experimental set up is presented and an expository presentation is made of the passive tag design, modelled and simulated and adopted for same application.
    • Load capacity of reinforced concrete continuous deep beams

      Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Ashour, Ashraf F. (2008)
      Most codes of practice, such as EC2 and ACI 318-05, recommend the use of strut-and-tie models for the design of reinforced concrete deep beams. However, studies on the validity of the strut-and-tie models for continuous deep beams are rare. This paper evaluates the strut-and-tie model specified by ACI 318-05 and mechanism analysis of the plasticity theory in predicting the load capacity of 75 reinforced concrete continuous deep beams tested in the literature. The influence of such main parameters as compressive strength of concrete, shear span-to-overall depth ratio, main longitudinal bottom reinforcement, and shear reinforcement on the load capacity is also investigated using both methods and experimental results. Experimental results were closer to the predictions obtained from the mechanism analysis than the strut-and-tie model. The strut-and-tie model highly overestimated the load capacity of continuous deep beams without shear reinforcement.
    • Load capacity predictions of continuous concrete deep beams reinforced with GFRP bars

      Shalookh, Othman H. Zinkaah; Ashour, Ashraf F. (2019-06)
      Nine continuous concrete deep beams reinforced with glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars were experimentally tested to failure. Three main parameters were investigated, namely, shear span-to-overall depth ratio, web reinforcement and size effect. The experimental results confirmed the impacts of web reinforcement and size effect that were not considered by the strut-and-tie method (STM) of the only code provision, the Canadian S806-12, that addressed such elements. The experimental results were employed to evaluate the applicability of the methods suggested by the American, European and Canadian codes as well as the previous studies to predict the load capacities of continuous deep beams reinforced with GFRP bars. It was found that these methods were unable to reflect the influences of size effect and/or web reinforcement, the impact of which has been confirmed by the current experimental investigation. Therefore, a new effectiveness factor was recommended to be used with the STM. Additionally, an upper-bound analysis was developed to predict the load capacity of the tested specimens considering a reduced bond strength of GFRP bars. A good agreement between the predicted results and the experimental ones was obtained with the mean and coefficient of variation values of 1.02 and 5.9%, respectively, for the STM and 1.03 and 8.6%, respectively, for the upper-bound analysis.
    • Load-aware radio access selection in future generation wireless networks

      Ali, Muhammad; Pillai, Prashant; Hu, Yim Fun (2013)
      In the telecommunication networks the introduction of Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN) has been described as the most significant change in wireless communication. The convergence of different access networks in NGWN allows generalized mobility, consistency and ubiquitous provision of services to mobile users. The general target of NGWN is to transport different types of information like voice, data, and other media like video in packets form like IP. The NGWNs offer significant savings in costs to the operators along with new and interesting services to the consumers. Major challenges in NGWN are efficient resource utilization, maintaining service quality, reliability and the security. This paper proposes a solution for seamless load aware Radio Access Technology (RAT) selection based on interworking of different RATs in NGWN. In this paper novel load balancing algorithms have been proposed which have been simulated on the target network architecture for TCP data services. The IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover (MIH) is utilized in load balancing specifically for mobility management, which enable low handover latency by reducing the target network detection time. The proposed method considers the network type, signal strength, data rate and network load as primary decision parameters for RAT selection process and consists of two different algorithms, one located in the mobile terminal and the other at the network side. The network architecture, the proposed load balancing framework and RAT selection algorithms were simulated using NS2. Different attributes like load distribution in the wireless networks and average throughput to evaluate the effects of load balancing in considered scenarios.
    • Localised Credit Based QoS Routing.

      Alabbad, Saad H.; Woodward, Mike E. (2006)
      Localized Quality of Service (QoS) routing has recently been proposed as a viable alternative approach to traditional QoS routing algorithms that use global state information. In this approach, problems associated with maintaining global state information and the staleness of such information are avoided by having the source nodes to infer the network QoS state based on flow blocking statistics collected locally, and perform flow routing using this localized view of the network QoS state . In this paper we introduce a credit based routing algorithm (cbr) which is a simple yet effective localized QoS routing algorithm. We compare its performance against the localized proportional sticky routing (psr) algorithm same time complexity. using different types of network topologies, QoS requirements and traffic patterns and under a wide range of traffic loads. Extensive simulations show that our algorithm outperforms the psr algorithm with the same time complexity.
    • Long term evolution of the surface refractivity for arctic regions

      Bettouche, Y.; Kouki, A.; Agba, B.; Obeidat, Huthaifa A.N.; Alhassan, H.; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Jones, Steven M.R. (2019-07)
      In this paper, local meteorological data for a period of 35 years (from 1979 to 2013) from Kuujuaq station have been used to calculate the surface refractivity, N and to estimate the vertical refractivity gradient, dN1, in the lowest atmospheric layer above the ground. Monthly and yearly variations of the mean of N and dN1 are provided. The values obtained are compared with the corresponding values from the ITU maps. The long-term trend of the surface refractivity is also investigated. The data demonstrate that the indices N and dN1 are subject to an evolution which may have significance in the context of climate change (CC). Monthly means of N show an increasing departure from ITU-R values since 1990. Yearly mean values of the dN1 show a progressive decrease over the period of study. Seasonal means of dN1 show a decrease over time, especially for summer. Such a trend may increase the occurrence of super-refraction. However, currently available ITU-R recommendations for microwave link design assume a stationary climate, so there is a need for a new modelling approach.
    • Long-chain branched poly(lactic acid)- b-poly(lactide- co-caprolactone): Structure, viscoelastic behavior, and triple-shape memory effect as smart bone fixation material

      Liu, Y.; Cao, H.; Ye, L.; Coates, Philip D.; Caton-Rose, Philip D.; Zhao, X. (2020-03-11)
      A novel fully biosbased poly(lactic acid)-b-poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLA-b-PLCL) with a two-phase structure and long-chain branches was specifically designed and prepared through reactive melt processing. The results showed that PLCL segments were introduced onto PLA chains successfully. With the increase of PLCL content, the blockier distribution of LA/CL chain sequences of the sample was exhibited. PLA-b-PLCL showed two distinct thermal transitions, corresponding to the glass transition of PLA and PLCL domains, respectively, whereas the phase morphology changed from a sea-island to a co-continuous structure with increasing PLCL content. Because of the long-chain branched structure, PLA-b-PLCL samples showed a much higher viscoelasticity, strong molecular entanglement, and obvious strain-hardening behavior, resulting in a high draw ratio of the sample during orientation process, whereas the tensile strength and the modulus of the oriented sample reached up to 173 MPa and 5.4 GPa, respectively, which basically met the requirements of bone screws. Moreover, PLA-b-PLCL showed a triple-shape memory effect at 55 and 120 °C, respectively. For PLA-b-30 wt % PLCL, the recovery ratio can reach up to 98.1% under 55 °C, while high mechanical properties can be maintained, realizing self-reinforcement and self-fastening effect simultaneously as a smart bone fixation material.
    • Long-term drying shrinkage of self-compacting concrete: experimental and analytical investigations

      Abdalhmid, Jamila M.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Sheehan, Therese (2019-03-30)
      The present study investigated long-term drying shrinkage strains of self-compacting concrete (SCCs). For all SCCs mixes, Portland cement was replaced with 0–60% of fly ash (FA), fine and course aggregates were kept constant with 890 kg/m3 and 780 kg/m3, respectively. Two different water binder ratios of 0.44 and 0.33 were examined for both SCCs and normal concrete (NCs). Fresh properties of SCCs such as filling ability, passing ability, viscosity and resistance to segregation and hardened properties such as compressive and flexural strengths, water absorption and density of SCCs and NCs were also determined. Experimental results of drying shrinkage were compared to five existing models, namely the ACI 209R-92 model, BSEN-92 model, ACI 209R-92 (Huo) model, B3 model, and GL2000. To assess the quality of predictive models, the influence of various parameters (compressive strength, cement content, water content and relative humidity) effecting on the drying shrinkage strain as considered by the models are studied. The results showed that, using up to 60% of FA as cement replacement can produce SCC with a compressive strength as high as 30 MPa and low drying shrinkage strain. SCCs long-term drying shrinkage from 356 to 1000 days was higher than NCs. ACI 209R-92 model provided a better prediction of drying shrinkage compared with the other models.
    • Loop feed meander-line antenna RFID tag desing for UHF band

      Ma, Y.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Zhou, Dawei; See, Chan H.; Abidin, Z.Z.; Jin, C.; Peng, B. (2014)
      A loop feed meander-line Antenna (LFMLA) RFID tag on a relatively low dielectric constant substrate operates on the European UHF band 865-868 MHz is presented. The tag modeling is analyzed using two different electromagnetic simulator HFSS and CST. A prototype tag antenna is constructed and measured for validation. The input impedance of the proposed antenna is verified against the simulated data results, the measured and simulated results are found to be in good agreement. The compact size tag antenna shows excellent impedance matching to the typical input impedance of a RFID integrated circuit chip and a significant improvement in reading range up to 5 meters.
    • Lotus-leaf inspired surfaces: hydrophobicity evolution of replicas due to mechanical cleaning and mold wear

      Romano, J.-M.; Garcia-Giron, A.; Penchev, P.; Gülçür, Mert; Whiteside, Benjamin R.; Dimov, S. (2020-03)
      Inspired from the low wetting properties of Lotus leaves, the fabrication of dual micro/nano-scale topographies is of interest to many applications. In this research, superhydrophobic surfaces are fabricated by a process chain combining ultrashort pulsed laser texturing of steel inserts and injection moulding to produce textured polypropylene parts. This manufacturing route is very promising and could be economically viable for mass production of polymeric parts with superhydrophobic properties. However, surface damages, such as wear and abrasion phenomena, can be detrimental to the attractive wetting properties of replicated textured surfaces. Therefore, the final product lifespan is investigated by employing mechanical cleaning of textured polypropylene surfaces with multipurpose cloths following the ASTM D3450 standard. Secondly, the surface damage of replication masters after 350 injection moulding cycles with glass-fiber reinforced polypropylene, especially to intensify mould wear, was investigated. In both cases, the degradation of the dual-scale surface textures had a clear impact on surface topography of the replicas and thus on their wetting properties, too.
    • Low cost on-line non-invasive sewer flow monitoring

      Nichols, Andrew; Tait, Simon J.; Horoshenkov, Kirill V.; Shepherd, Simon J.; Zhang, Y. (2013)
      A novel acoustic sensor has been developed, capable of remotely monitoring the free surface ‘fingerprint’ of shallow flows. Temporal and spatial properties of this pattern are shown to contain information regarding the nature of the flow itself. The remote measurement can thereby be used to infer the bulk flow properties such as depth, velocity, and the hydraulic roughness of the pipe. The instrument is non-invasive and is also low cost, low maintenance, and low power. Such a device will allow for widespread monitoring of flow conditions in drainage networks, enabling pro-active maintenance and reliable real-time control.
    • Low energy pre-blended mortars: Part 1-Control of the sand drying process using a lime drying technique

      Hughes, David C.; Illingworth, J.M. (2015-12-30)
      Produttion control methods allow factory produced mortars to be supplied to a more consistent formulation than site produced mortars. However, there is scope to enhance their "sustainability" credentials by addressing the methods of drying the wet sand and the use of lower energy hydraulic components. This paper describes the development of a technique in which quicklime is added in controlled quantities to remove free water by both chemical combination and evaporation. The slaked lime so generated is porous and a third mechanism of absorption is suggested which, however, might have adverse effects during storage of the pre-blended mortar. The principal process-control factors are lime addition based upon a ratio of the stoichiometric requirements for complete slaking of the quicklime, free moisture content of the sand, mixing time of the combined sand and quicklime, and storage of the mixed material. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Low energy pre-blended mortars: Part 2-Production and characterisation of mortars using a novel lime drying technique

      Hughes, David C.; Illingworth, J.M.; Starinieri, V. (2015-12-30)
      The presence of free water in mortars destined for silo or bagged storage can lead to the degradation of the binder phase. Such water may be present as a result of using wet, as-delivered sand or as a consequence of prior processes such as de-activation of Roman cement. Thus, water must be removed from the system prior to storage. Part 1 of this paper describes the control of a technique by which quicklime is added to the wet system which principally dries it by both slaking the quicklime and evaporation as a consequence of the exothermic slaking reaction. Two examples of mortars are presented in which excess water is removed from the system by the inclusion of quicklime. In the first, the water is present in the as-delivered sand and the binder is a combination of the slaked lime and ggbs. In the second, the water remains after pre-hydration of a Roman cement which is a process to retard its rapid setting characteristics. It is shown that optimally dried mortars are not subject to degradation following storage of both mortar types. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.