• Object registration in semi-cluttered and partial-occluded scenes for augmented reality

      Gao, Q.H.; Wan, Tao Ruan; Tang, W.; Chen, L. (2018-06)
      This paper proposes a stable and accurate object registration pipeline for markerless augmented reality applications. We present two novel algorithms for object recognition and matching to improve the registration accuracy from model to scene transformation via point cloud fusion. Whilst the first algorithm effectively deals with simple scenes with few object occlusions, the second algorithm handles cluttered scenes with partial occlusions for robust real-time object recognition and matching. The computational framework includes a locally supported Gaussian weight function to enable repeatable detection of 3D descriptors. We apply a bilateral filtering and outlier removal to preserve edges of point cloud and remove some interference points in order to increase matching accuracy. Extensive experiments have been carried to compare the proposed algorithms with four most used methods. Results show improved performance of the algorithms in terms of computational speed, camera tracking and object matching errors in semi-cluttered and partial-occluded scenes.
    • Obstacle crossing during locomotion: Visual exproprioceptive information is used in an online mode to update foot placement before the obstacle but not swing trajectory over it

      Timmis, Matthew A.; Buckley, John G. (2012-05)
      Although gaze during adaptive gait involving obstacle crossing is typically directed two or more steps ahead, visual information of the swinging lower-limb and its relative position in the environment (termed visual exproprioception) is available in the lower visual field (lvf). This study determined exactly when lvf exproprioceptive information is utilised to control/update lead-limb swing trajectory during obstacle negotiation. 12 young participants negotiated an obstacle wearing smart-glass goggles which unpredictably occluded the lvf for certain periods during obstacle approach and crossing. Trials were also completed with lvf occluded for the entirety of the trial. When lvf was occluded throughout, footplacement distance and toe-clearance became significantly increased; which is consistent with previous work that likewise used continuous lvf occlusion. Both variables were similarly affected by lvf occlusion from instant of penultimate-step contact, but both were unaffected when lvf was occluded from instant of final-step contact. These findings suggest that lvf (exproprioceptive) input is typically used in an online manner to control/update final foot-placement, and that without such control, uncertainty regarding foot placement causes toe-clearance to be increased. Also that lvf input is not normally exploited in an online manner to update toe-clearance during crossing: which is contrary to what previous research has suggested.
    • An “off-the shelf” Synthetic Membrane to Simplify Regeneration of Damaged Corneas

      Sefat, Farshid; Ortega, Í.; McKean, R.; Deshpande, P.; Ramachandran, C.; Hill, C.J.; Tzokov, S.B.; Claeyssens, F.; Sangwan, V.S.; Ryan, A.J.; et al. (2014)
      Our overall aim is to develop a synthetic off-the-shelf alternative to human amniotic membrane which is currently used for delivering cultured limbal stem cells to the cornea in patients who suffer scarring of the cornea because of the loss of limbal stem cells. We have recently reported that both cultured cells and limbal explants grow well on electrospun Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) (44 kg/mol) with a 50:50 ratio of lactide and glycolide and sterilized with γ-irradiation. Prior to undertaking a clinical study our immediate aim now is to achieve long term storage of the membranes in convenient to use packaging. Membranes were electrospun from Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (44 kg/mol) with a 50:50 ratio of lactide and glycolide and sterilized with γ-irradiation and then stored dry (with desiccant) for several months at -80°C and -20°C , Room temperature (UK and India), 37°C and 50°C. We explored the contribution of vacuum sealing and the use of a medical grade bag (PET/Foil/LDPE) to achieve a longer shelf life. Confirmation of membranes being suitable for clinical use was obtained by culturing tissue explants on membranes post storage. When scaffolds were stored dry the rate of breakdown was both temperature and time dependent. At -20°C and -80°C there was no change in fiber diameter over 18 months of storage, and membranes were stable for 12 months at 4°C while at 50°C (above the transition temperature for PLGA) scaffolds lost integrity after several weeks. The use of vacuum packaging and a medical grade bag both improved the storage shelf-life of the scaffolds. The impact of temperature on storage is summarized beneath. We report that this synthetic membrane can be used as an off-the-shelf or-out-of-the freezer alternative to the amniotic membrane for corneal regeneration.
    • Offset Aperture-Coupled Double-Cylinder Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Extended Wideband

      Zebiri, Chemseddine; Lashab, Mohamed; Sayad, D.; Elfergani, Issa T.; Sayidmarie, Khalil H.; Benabdelaziz, F.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Noras, James M. (2017-08-24)
      A compact dielectric resonator antenna for ultra-wideband vehicular communication applications is proposed. Two cylindrical dielectric resonators are asymmetrically located with respect to the center of an offset rectangular coupling aperture, through which they are fed. Optimizing the design parameters results in an impedance bandwidth of 21%, covering the range from 5.9 to 7.32 GHz in the lower-band and a 53% relative bandwidth from 8.72 to 15 GHz in the upper-band. The maximum achieved gain is 12 dBi. Design details of the proposed antenna and the results of both simulations and experiment are presented and discussed.
    • Offshore Wind Turbine Reliability and Operational Simulation under Uncertainties

      Dao, Cuong D.; Kazemtabrizi, B.; Crabtree, C.J. (2020)
      The fast‐growing offshore wind energy sector brings opportunities to provide a sustainable energy resource but also challenges in offshore wind turbine (OWT) operation and maintenance management. Existing operational simulation models assume deterministic input reliability and failure cost data, whereas OWT reliability and failure costs vary depending on several factors, and it is often not possible to specify them with certainty. This paper focuses on modelling reliability and failure cost uncertainties and their impacts on OWT operational and economic performance. First, we present a probabilistic method for modelling reliability data uncertainty with a quantitative parameter estimation from available reliability data resources. Then, failure cost uncertainty is modelled using fuzzy logic that relates a component's failure cost to its capital cost and downtime. A time‐sequential Monte Carlo simulation is presented to simulate operational sequences of OWT components. This operation profile is later fed into a fuzzy cost assessment and coupled with a wind power curve model to evaluate OWT availability, energy production, operational expenditures and levelised cost of energy. A case study with different sets of reliability data is presented, and the results show that impacts of uncertainty on OWT performance are magnified in databases with low components' reliability. In addition, both reliability and cost uncertainties can contribute to more than 10% of the cost of energy variation. This research can provide practitioners with methods to handle data uncertainties in reliability and operational simulation of OWTs and help them to quantify the variability and dependence of wind power performance on data uncertainties.
    • Oil and gas properties and correlations

      Mahdavi, E.; Suleymani, M.; Rahmanian, Nejat (2016-11)
    • Oil spill: are we doing enough to avoid it?

      Pu, Jaan H. (2017-04-19)
      This paper reviews the recent studies on the identification and cleaning methods, as well as the consequences of oil spill. The future progression on oil spill prevention studies are also projected here.
    • Oligoaniline-based conductive biomaterials for tissue engineering

      Zarrintaj, P.; Bakhshandeh, B.; Saeb, M.R.; Sefat, Farshid; Rezaeian, I.; Ganjali, M.R.; Ramakrishna, S.; Mozafari, M. (2018-05)
      The science and engineering of biomaterials have improved the human life expectancy. Tissue engineering is one of the nascent strategies with an aim to fulfill this target. Tissue engineering scaffolds are one of the most significant aspects of the recent tissue repair strategies; hence, it is imperative to design biomimetic substrates with suitable features. Conductive substrates can ameliorate the cellular activity through enhancement of cellular signaling. Biocompatible polymers with conductivity can mimic the cells’ niche in an appropriate manner. Bioconductive polymers based on aniline oligomers can potentially actualize this purpose because of their unique and tailoring properties. The aniline oligomers can be positioned within the molecular structure of other polymers, thus painter acting with the side groups of the main polymer or acting as a comonomer in their backbone. The conductivity of oligoaniline-based conductive biomaterials can be tailored to mimic the electrical and mechanical properties of targeted tissues/organs. These bioconductive substrates can be designed with high mechanical strength for hard tissues such as the bone and with high elasticity to be used for the cardiac tissue or can be synthesized in the form of injectable hydrogels, particles, and nanofibers for noninvasive implantation; these structures can be used for applications such as drug/gene delivery and extracellular biomimetic structures. It is expected that with progress in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering, more innovative constructs will be proposed in the near future. This review discusses the recent advancements in the use of oligoaniline-based conductive biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.
    • On automatic age estimation from facial profile view

      Bukar, Ali M.; Ugail, Hassan (2017-12)
      In recent years, automatic facial age estimation has gained popularity due to its numerous applications. Much work has been done on frontal images and lately, minimal estimation errors have been achieved on most of the benchmark databases. However, in reality, images obtained in unconstrained environments are not always frontal. For instance, when conducting a demographic study or crowd analysis, one may get profile images of the face. To the best of our knowledge, no attempt has been made to estimate ages from the side-view of face images. Here we exploit this by using a pre-trained deep residual neural network (ResNet) to extract features. We then utilize a sparse partial least squares regression approach to estimate ages. Despite having less information as compared to frontal images, our results show that the extracted deep features achieve a promising performance.
    • On Bezier surfaces in three-dimensional Minkowski space

      Ugail, Hassan; Marquez, M.C.; Yilmaz, A. (2011)
      In this paper, we study Bézier surfaces in View the MathML source three-dimensional Minkowski space. In particular, we focus on timelike and spacelike cases for Bézier surfaces. We also deal with the Plateau¿Bézier problem in View the MathML source, obtaining conditions over the control net to be extremal of the Dirichlet function for both timelike and spacelike Bézier surfaces. Moreover, we provide interesting examples showing the behavior of the Plateau¿Bézier problem in View the MathML source and illustrating the relationship between it and the corresponding Plateau¿Bézier problem in the Euclidean space R3.
    • On energy minimization of heterogeneos cloud radio access networks

      Sigwele, Tshiamo; Pillai, Prashant; Hu, Yim Fun (2016)
      Next-generation 5G networks is the future of information networks and it will experience a tremendous growth in traffic. To meet such traffic demands, there is a necessity to increase the network capacity, which requires the deployment of ultra dense heterogeneous base stations (BSs). Nevertheless, BSs are very expensive and consume a significant amount of energy. Meanwhile, cloud radio access networks (C-RAN) has been proposed as an energy-efficient architecture that leverages the cloud computing technology where baseband processing is performed in the cloud. In addition, the BS sleeping is considered as a promising solution to conserving the network energy. This paper integrates the cloud technology and the BS sleeping approach. It also proposes an energy-efficient scheme for reducing energy consumption by switching off remote radio heads (RRHs) and idle BBUs using a greedy and first fit decreasing (FFD) bin packing algorithms, respectively. The number of RRHs and BBUs are minimized by matching the right amount of baseband computing load with traffic load. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieves an enhanced energy performance compared to the existing distributed long term evolution advanced (LTE-A) system.
    • On facial age progression based on modified active appearance models with face texture

      Bukar, Ali M.; Ugail, Hassan; Hussain, Nosheen (2016-09)
      Age progression that involves the reconstruction of facial appearance with a natural ageing effect has several applications. These include the search for missing people and identification of fugitives. The majority of age progression methods reported in the literature are data driven. Hence, such methods learn from training data and utilise statistical models such as 3D morphable models and active appearance models (AAM). Principal component analysis (PCA) which is a vital part of these models has an unfortunate drawback of averaging out texture details. Therefore, they work as a low pass filter and as such many of the face skin deformations and minor details become faded. Interestingly, recent work in 2D and 3D animation has shown that patches of the human face are somewhat similar when compared in isolation. Thus, researchers have proposed generating novel faces by compositing small face patches, usually from large image databases. Following these ideas, we propose a novel age progression model which synthesises aged faces using a hybrid of these two techniques. First, an invertible model of age synthesis is developed using AAM and sparse partial least squares regression (sPLS). Then the texture details of the face are enhanced using the patch-based synthesis approach. Our results show that the hybrid algorithm produces both unique and realistic images. Furthermore, our method demonstrates that the identity and ageing effects of subjects can be more emphasised.
    • On Gender Identification Using the Smile Dynamics

      Al-Dahoud, A.; Ugail, Hassan (2017)
      Gender classification has multiple applications including, but not limited to, face perception, age, ethnicity and identity analysis, video surveillance and smart human computer interaction. The majority of computer based gender classification algorithms analyse the appearance of facial features predominantly based on the texture of the static image of the face. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for gender classification using the smile dynamics without resorting to the use of any facial texture information. Our experiments suggest that this method has great potential for finding indicators of gender dimorphism. Our approach was tested on two databases, namely the CK+ and the MUG, consisting of a total of 80 subjects. As a result, using the KNN algorithm along with 10-fold cross validation, we achieve an accurate classification rate of 80% for gender simply based on the dynamics of a person's smile.
    • On harmonic and biharmonic Bezier surfaces

      Monterde, J.; Ugail, Hassan (2004)
    • On interactive design using the PDE method.

      Ugail, Hassan; Bloor, M.I.G.; Wilson, M.J. (Vanderbilt University Press, 1998)
    • On the Analytic Assessment of the Impact of Traffic Correlation on Queues in Continuous Time Domain

      Li, W.; Kouvatsos, Demetres D.; Fretwell, Rod J. (2017-02)
      Given only the traffic correlations of counts and intervals, a Batch Renewal Arrival Process (BRAP) is completely determined, as the least biased choice and thus, it provides the analytic means to construct suitable traffic models for the study of queueing systems independently of any other traffic characteristics. In this context, the BRAP and the Batch Markovian Arrival Process (BMAP) are employed in the continuous time domain towards the analysis of the stable BRAP/GE/1 and BMAP/GE/1 queues with infinite capacity, single servers and generalized exponential (GE) service times. Novel closed form expressions for the steady state probabilities of these queues are obtained, based on the embedded Markov chains (EMCs) technique and the matrix-geometric (M-G) method, respectively. Moreover, the stable GEsGGeo/GE/1 queue with GE-type service times and a GEsGGeo BRAP consisting of bursty GE-type batch interarrival times and a shifted generalized geometric (sGGeo) batch size distribution is adopted to assess analytically the combined adverse effects of varying degrees of correlation of intervals between individual arrivals and the burstiness of service times upon the typical quality of service (QoS) measure of the mean queue length (MQL). Moreover, a comprehensive experimental study is carried out to investigate numerically the relative impact of count and interval traffic correlations as well as other traffic characteristics upon the performance of stable BRAP/GE/1 and BMAP/GE/1 queues. It is suggested via a conjecture that the BRAP/GE/1 queue is likely to yield pessimistic performance metrics in comparison to those of the stable BMAP/GE/1 queues under the worst case scenario (i.e., a worst case scenario) of the same positive count and interval traffic correlations arising from long sojourn in each phase.
    • On the application of raised-cosine wavelets for multicarrier systems design

      Anoh, Kelvin O.O.; Mapoka, Trust T.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Ochonogor, O.; Jones, Steven M.R. (2014-08)
      New orthogonal wavelet transforms can be designed by changing the wavelet basis functions or by constructing new low-pass filters (LPF). One family of wavelet may appeal, in use, to a particular application than another. In this study, the wavelet transform based on raisedcosine spectrum is used as an independent orthogonal wavelet to study multicarrier modulation behaviour over multipath channel environment. Then, the raised-cosine wavelet is compared with other well-known orthogonal wavelets that are used, also, to build multicarrier modulation systems. Traditional orthogonal wavelets do not have side-lobes, while the raised-cosine wavelets have lots of side-lobes; these characteristics influence the wavelet behaviour. It will be shown that the raised-cosine wavelet transform, as an orthogonal wavelet, does not support the design of multicarrier application well like the existing well-known orthogonal wavelets.
    • On the convergence of the heat balance integral method

      Mosally, F.; Wood, Alastair S.; Al-Fhaid, A. (2009-07-28)
      Convergence properties are established for the piecewise linear heat balance integral solution of a benchmark moving boundary problem, thus generalising earlier results [Numer. Heat Transfer 8 (1985) 373]. A convergence rate of O(n¿1) is identified with minor effects at large values of the Stefan number ß (slow interface movement). The correct O(n¿1/2) behaviour for incident heat flux is recovered for ß ¿ 0 (pure heat conduction) as previously found [Numer. Heat Transfer 8 (1985) 373¿382]. Numerical illustrations support the theoretical findings.
    • On the development of an Interactive talking head system

      Athanasopoulos, Michael; Ugail, Hassan; Gonzalez Castro, Gabriela (2010)
    • On the development of an Interactive talking head system based on the use of PDE-based parametric surfaces

      Athanasopoulos, Michael; Ugail, Hassan; Gonzalez Castro, Gabriela (2011)
      In this work we propose a talking head system for animating facial expressions using a template face generated from Partial Differen- tial Equations (PDEs). It uses a set of preconfigured curves to calculate an internal template surface face. This surface is then used to associate various facial features with a given 3D face object. Motion retargeting is then used to transfer the deformations in these areas from the template to the target object. The procedure is continued until all the expressions in the database are calculated and transferred to the target 3D human face object. Additionally the system interacts with the user using an artificial intelligence (AI) chatterbot to generate response from a given text. Speech and facial animation are synchronized using the Microsoft Speech API, where the response from the AI bot is converted to speech.