• Calcination of Marls to Produce Roman Cement

      Hughes, David C.; Jaglin, D.; Kozlowski, R.; Mayr, N.; Mucha, D.; Weber, J. (ASTM, 2006)
      Marls were identified from a range of European sources and assessed for their Cementation Index, as proposed by Eckel. Two were selected for calcination in a laboratory kiln; one from Folwark in Poland (CI 1.75) and one from Lillienfeld in Austria (CI 2.03). Analysis of historical documents, while not revealing precise kiln conditions, does suggest that they were such as not to yield complete decarbonation of the calcite. Consequently, a series of calcinations was undertaken in which the peak temperature control of the kiln was set in the range 730°C to 1100°C, with residence times in the range 150 to 1250 min. The airflow through the kiln was sufficient to maintain a minimum oxygen content of at least 12 %. The resulting clinker was ground to comply with the 19th century Austrian Norme. Pastes were produced at w/c = 0.65 and assessed for setting time and strength development (6 h to 1 year). Both parameters were highly dependent upon calcination conditions with both ¿low¿ and ¿high¿ calcinations producing slower setting and slower strength development than intermediate conditions. Two strength development profiles were identified; one being the expected continuous increase of strength, albeit with a declining rate of increase with time, while the other showed a three-step sequence of high initial strength, a dormant period which could last for many weeks and a final increase in strength to an age of one year. The cements were compared using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Considerable variation in the composition was noted and related to the calcination conditions. Of particular interest is the formation of both ¿'-belite and ß-belite under differing calcination conditions. Clinker particles were also compared using the SEM in back-scattered electron imaging mode and the development of morphology observed.
    • Calculation of the Spatial Envelope Correlation Between Two Antennas in Terms of the System Scattering Parameters Including Conducting Losses.

      Dama, Yousef A.S.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Zhou, Dawei; Jones, Steven M.R.; Child, Mark B.; Excell, Peter S. (08/11/2010)
      The envelope correlation for a two-element antenna array may be calculated using the antenna radiation fields, or more simply from the scattering parameters of the system. The use of scattering parameters provides a major simplification over the direct use of field data. In this paper we propose a modification of the scattering parameter method which also includes the antenna losses. This approach has the advantage of simplifying the antenna design process, especially when low envelope correlations are needed. It also offers a better prediction of the spatial envelope correlation, and a good framework for understanding the effects of the mutual coupling. The accuracy of this proposed method is illustrated by two examples.
    • Calibration Model for Detection of Potential Demodulating Behaviour in Biological Media Exposed to RF Energy

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; See, Chan H.; Excell, Peter S.; McEwan, Neil J.; Ali, N.T. (2017-05-17)
      Potential demodulating ability in biological tissue exposed to Radio Frequency (RF) signals intrinsically requires an unsymmetrical diode-like nonlinear response in tissue samples. This may be investigated by observing possible generation of the second harmonic in a cavity resonator designed to have fundamental and second harmonic resonant frequencies with collocated antinodes. Such a response would be of interest as being a mechanism that could enable demodulation of information-carrying waveforms having modulating frequencies in ranges that could interfere with cellular processes. Previous work has developed an experimental system to test for such responses: the present work reports an electric circuit model devised to facilitate calibration of any putative nonlinear RF energy conversion occurring within a nonlinear test-piece inside the cavity. The method is validated computationally and experimentally using a well-characterised nonlinear device. The variations of the reflection coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic responses of the cavity due to adding nonlinear and lossy material are also discussed. The proposed model demonstrates that the sensitivity of the measurement equipment plays a vital role in deciding the required input power to detect any second harmonic signal, which is expected to be very weak. The model developed here enables the establishment of a lookup table giving the level of the second harmonic signal in the detector as a function of the specific input power applied in a measurement. Experimental results are in good agreement with the simulated results.
    • Call admission control in cloud radio access networks

      Sigwele, Tshiamo; Pillai, Prashant; Hu, Yim Fun (2014)
      Over the past decade, wireless communications has experienced tremendous growth, and this growth is likely to multiply in the near future. The proliferation of mobile users and an ever increasing demand for multimedia services has resulted in greater capacity requirements. Radio frequency spectrum is scarce and cannot meet this ever increasing demand and the required Quality of Service (QoS) will no longer be achieved if efficient Radio Resource Management (RRM) solutions are not found. Conventional Radio Access Networks (RAN) have standalone Base Stations (BS) with capacity preconfigured for peak loads. These RANs have high call blocking and dropping rates since BSs resources cannot be shared. Cloud based RANs (C-RAN) have been proposed as a cost and energy efficient way of meeting high capacity demand of future wireless access networks by consolidating BSs to the cloud. Instead of relying on rejection of new call requests due to limited BS resources, C-RAN takes benefit of the cloud elasticity, which allows dynamic provisioning of cloud BS resources. This paper presents a novel C-RAN Call Admission Control (C-RAN CAC) to ensure Grade of Service (GoS) by improving blocking probability and improvement of call waiting times. Call blocking probability, call average waiting time and system utilization are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed CAC algorithm.
    • Call admission control using cell breathing concept for wideband CDMA

      Mishra, Jyoti L.; Dahal, Keshav P.; Hossain, M. Alamgir (2006)
      This paper presents a Call Admission Control (CAC) algorithm based fuzzy logic to maintain the quality of service using cell breathing concept. When a new call is accepted by a cell, its current user is generally affected due to cell breathing. The proposed CAC algorithm accepts a new call only if the current users in the cell are not jeopardized. Performance evaluation is done for single-cell and multicell scenarios. In multicell scenario dynamic assignment of users to the neighboring cell, so called handoff, has been considered to achieve a lower blocking probability. Handoff and new call requests are assumed with handoff being given preference using a reserved channel scheme. CAC for different types of services are shown which depend upon the bandwidth requirement for voice, data and video. Distance, arrival rate, bandwidth and nonorthogonality factor of the signal are considered for making the call acceptance decision. The paper demonstrates that fuzzy logic with the cell breathing concept can be used to develop a CAC algorithm to achieve a better performance evaluation.
    • Capacities of headed stud shear connectors in composite steel beams with precast hollowcore slabs.

      Lam, Dennis (2007)
      In steel¿concrete composite beams, the longitudinal shear force is transferred across the steel flange/concrete slab interface by the mechanical action of the shear connectors. The ability of the shear connectors to transfer these longitudinal shear forces depends on their strength, and also on the resistance of the concrete slab against longitudinal cracking induced by the high concentration of shear force. Most of the research in composite construction has concentrated on the more traditional reinforced concrete and metal deck construction, and little information is given on shear capacity of the headed studs in precast hollowcore slabs. In this paper, a standard push test procedure for use with composite beams with precast hollowcore slabs is proposed. Seven exploratory push tests were carried out on headed studs in solid RC slabs to validate the testing procedures, and the results showed that the new test is compatible with the results specified in the codes of practice for solid RC slabs. Once a standard procedure is established, 72 full-scale push tests on headed studs in hollowcore slabs were performed to determine the capacities of the headed stud connectors in precast hollowcore slabs and the results of the experimental study are analysed and findings on the effect of all the parameters on connectors¿ strength and ductility are presented. Newly proposed design equations for calculating the shear connectors¿ capacity for this form of composite construction are also be given.
    • A Capacitively loaded Antenna for use in Mobile Handsets

      Elfergani, Issa T.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; See, Chan H.; Child, Mark B.; Excell, Peter S. (2010-11-08)
      A tuneable slotted patch antenna design is presented and verified for use in the DCS, PCS and UMTS bands. The tuning circuit consists of two varactor diodes with some passive components, and is integrated fully with the r radiator patch, with the varactors occupying different locations over the slot. The tuning does not require any further modification to the patch or feed geometry. Good agreement is observed between the predicted and observed impedance bandwidth, return loss, gain and radiation pattern, throughout the range 1.70 GHz-2.05 GHz.
    • Capillary Study on Geometrical Dependence of Shear Viscosity of Polymer Melts

      Lin, X.; Kelly, Adrian L.; Woodhead, Michael; Ren, D.Y.; Wang, K.S.; Coates, Philip D. (2014)
    • Carbothermic reduction of oxides during nitrogen sintering of manganese and chromium steels.

      Mitchell, Stephen C.; Cias, A. (2004)
      To interpret nitrogen sintering of chromium and manganese steels without the formation of deleterious oxides, but with manganese and carbon the formation of deleterious oxides, but with manganese and carbon modifying the local microclimate, the role of the volatile Mn and modifying the local microclimate, the role of the volatile and Mn carbothermic reactions were considered. carbothermic reactions were considered. Reduction of Cr Reduction of Cr 2 2 O About 3 3 by Mn vapour by Mn vapor is always favourable. is always favorable. CO is an effective reducing agent, however, whereas CO is an effective reducing agent, however, whereas at atmospheric pressure it will reduce FeO at730°C, temperatures some at atmospheric pressure it will reduce FeO at730 ° C, temperatures some 500 and 700°C higher, ie above those for conventional sintering, are 500 and 700 ° C higher, ie above those for conventional sintering, are necessary for reducing Cr necessary for reducing Cr 2 2 O About 3 3 and MnO, respectively. and MNO, respectively. Accordingly partial Accordingly partial pressures must be considered and the sintering process is modelled at a pressures must be considered and the sintering process is modeled at a conglomerate of several surface oxidised alloy particles surrounding a pore conglomerate of several surface oxidised alloy particles surrounding a pore with graphite present and a tortuous access to the nitrogen-rich atmosphere with graphite and present a tortuous access to the nitrogen-rich atmosphere containing some water vapour and oxygen. containing some water vapor and oxygen. The relevant partial pressures The relevant partial pressures were calculated and reduction reactions become thermodynamically were calculated and reduction reactions become thermodynamically favourable from 200°C. favorable from 200 ° C. Kinetics, however, dictates availability of CO and Kinetics, however, dictates availability of CO and the relevant reactions are the water-gas, C + H the relevant reactions are the water-gas, C + H 2 2 O = CO + H O = CO + H 2 2 from 500°C from 500 ° C and the Boudouard, C + CO and the Boudouard C + CO 2 2 = 2CO, from 700°C. = 2CO, from 700 ° C. Discussion of sintering Discussion of sintering mechanisms is extended to processing in semi-closed containers, also mechanisms is extended to processing in a semi-closed containers, also possessing specific microclimates.
    • Carbothermic reduction of oxides during nitrogen sitnering of manganese and chromium steels

      Mitchell, Stephen C.; Cias, A. (2004)
      To interpret nitrogen sintering of chromium and manganese steels without the formation of deleterious oxides, but with manganese and carbon modifying the local microclimate, the role of the volatile Mn and carbothermic reactions were considered. Reduction of Cr2O3 by Mn vapour is always favourable. CO is an effective reducing agent, however, whereas at atmospheric pressure it will reduce FeO at ~730°C, temperatures some 500 and 700°C higher, i.e. above those for conventional sintering, are necessary for reducing Cr2O3 and MnO, respectively. Accordingly partial pressures must be considered and the sintering process is modelled at a conglomerate of several surface oxidised alloy particles surrounding a pore with graphite present and a tortuous access to the nitrogen-rich atmosphere containing some water vapour and oxygen. The relevant partial pressures were calculated and reduction reactions become thermodynamically favourable from ~200°C. Kinetics, however, dictates availability of CO and the relevant reactions are the water-gas, C + H2O = CO + H2 from ~500°C and the Boudouard, C + CO2 = 2CO, from ~700°C. Discussion of sintering mechanisms is extended to processing in semi-closed containers, also possessing specific microclimates.
    • Cascading permissions policy model for token-based access control in the web of things

      Amir, Mohammad; Pillai, Prashant; Hu, Yim Fun (2014)
      The merger of the Internet of Things (IoT) with cloud computing has given birth to a Web of Things (WoT) which hosts heterogeneous and rapidly varying data. Traditional access control mechanisms such as Role-Based Access schemes are no longer suitable for modelling access control on such a large and dynamic scale as the actors may also change all the time. For such a dynamic mix of applications, data and actors, a more distributed and flexible model is required. Token-Based Access Control is one such scheme which can easily model and comfortably handle interactions with big data in the cloud and enable provisioning of access to fine levels of granularity. However, simple token access models quickly become hard to manage in the face of a rapidly growing repository. This paper proposes a novel token access model based on a cascading permissions policy model which can easily control interactivity with big data without becoming a menace to manage and administer.
    • A Case Study of Scheduling Storage Tanks Using a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

      Dahal, Keshav P.; Burt, G.M.; McDonald, J.R.; Moyes, A. (2001)
      This paper proposes the application of a hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) for scheduling storage tanks. The proposed approach integrates GAs and heuristic rule-based techniques, decomposing the complex mixed-integer optimization problem into integer and real-number subproblems. The GA string considers the integer problem and the heuristic approach solves the real-number problems within the GA framework. The algorithm is demonstrated for three test scenarios of a water treatment facility at a port and has been found to be robust and to give a significantly better schedule than those generated using a random search and a heuristic-based approach.
    • CASM: A Content-Aware Protocol for Secure Video Multicast

      Yin, H.; Lin, C.; Qiu, F.; Liu, J.; Min, Geyong; Li, B. (2006)
      Information security has been a critical issue in the design and development of reliable distributed communication systems and has attracted significant research efforts. A challenging task is how to maintain information security at a high level for multiple-destination video applications with the huge volume of data and dynamic property of clients. This paper proposes a novel Content-Aware Secure Multicast (CASM) protocol for video distribution that seamlessly integrates three important modules: 1) a scalable light-weight algorithm for group key management; 2) a content-aware key embedding algorithm that can make video quality distortion imperceptible and is reliable for clients to detect embedded keys; and 3) a smart two-level video encryption algorithm that can selectively encrypt a small set of video data only, and yet ensure the video as well as the embedded keys unrecognizable without a genuine key. The implementation of the CASM protocol is independent of the underlying multicast mechanism and is fully compatible with existing coding standards. Performance evaluation studies built upon a CASM prototype have demonstrated that CASM is highly robust and scalable in dynamic multicast environments. Moreover, it ensures secure distribution of key and video data with minimized communication and computation overheads. The proposed content-aware key embedding and encryption algorithms are fast enough to support real-time video multicasting.
    • A cauchy-stress based solution for a necking elastic constitutive model under large deformation

      Olley, Peter (2006)
      A finite element based method for solution of large-deformation hyperelastic constitutive models is developed, which solves the Cauchy-stress balance equation using a single rotation of stress from principal directions to a fixed co-ordinate system. Features of the method include stress computation by central differencing of the hyperelastic energy function, mixed integration-order incompressibility enforcement, and an iterative solution method that employs notional `small strain¿ stiffness. The method is applied to an interesting and difficult elastic model that replicates polymer `necking¿; the method is shown to give good agreement with published results from a well-established finite element package, and with published experimental results. It is shown that details of the manner in which incompressibility is enforced affects whether key experimental phenomena are clearly resolved.
    • Cell Traction Force Mapping in MG63 and HaCaTs

      Soon, Chin Fhong; Genedy, Mohamed A.; Youseffi, Mansour; Denyer, Morgan C.T. (2013)
      The ability of a cell to adhere and transmit traction forces to a surface reveals the cytoskeleton integrity of a cell. Shear sensitive liquid crystals were discovered with new function in sensing cell traction force recently. This liquid crystal has been previously shown to be non-toxic, linear viscoelastic and sensitive to localized exerted forces. This paper reports the possibility of extending the application of the proposed liquid crystal based cell force sensor in sensing traction forces of osteoblast-like (MG-63) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines exerted to the liquid crystal sensor. Incorporated with cell force measurement software, force distributions of both cell types were represented in force maps. For these lowly contractile cells, chondrocytes expressed regular forces (10 – 90 nN, N = 200) around the circular cell body whereas HaCaT projected forces (0 – 200 nN, N = 200) around the perimeter of poly-hedral shaped body. These forces are associated with the organisation of the focal adhesion expressions and stiffness of the LC substrate. From the results, liquid crystal based cell force sensor system is shown to be feasible in detecting forces of both MG63 and HaCaT.
    • Cerebral venous outflow resistance and interpretation of cervical plethysmography data with respect to the diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

      Beggs, Clive B.; Shepherd, Simon J.; Zamboni, P. (2014)
      PURPOSE: To investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the aqueduct of Sylvius (AoS) in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI)-positive and -negative healthy individuals using cine phase contrast imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one healthy individuals (32 CCSVI-negative and 19 age-matched CCSVI-positive subjects) were examined using Doppler sonography (DS). Diagnosis of CCSVI was established if subjects fulfilled >/=2 venous hemodynamic criteria on DS. CSF flow and velocity measures were quantified using a semiautomated method and compared with clinical and routine 3T MRI outcomes. RESULTS: CCSVI was associated with increased CSF pulsatility in the AoS. Net positive CSF flow was 32% greater in the CCSVI-positive group compared with the CCSVI-negative group (P = 0.008). This was accompanied by a 28% increase in the mean aqueductal characteristic signal (ie, the AoS cross-sectional area over the cardiac cycle) in the CCSVI-positive group compared with the CCSVI-negative group (P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: CSF dynamics are altered in CCSVI-positive healthy individuals, as demonstrated by increased pulsatility. This is accompanied by enlargement of the AoS, suggesting that structural changes may be occurring in the brain parenchyma of CCSVI-positive healthy individuals.
    • CFD as a tool to optimize aeration tank design and operation

      Karpinska, A.M.; Bridgeman, John (2018-02)
      In a novel development on previous computational fluid dynamics studies, the work reported here used an Eulerian two-fluid model with the shear stress transport k–ω turbulence closure model and bubble interaction models to simulate aeration tank performance at full scale and to identify process performance issues resulting from design parameters and operating conditions. The current operating scenario was found to produce a fully developed spiral flow. Reduction of the airflow rates to the average and minimum design values led to a deterioration of the mixing conditions and formation of extended unaerated fluid regions. The influence of bubble-induced mixing on the reactor performance was further assessed via simulations of the residence time distribution of the fluid. Internal flow recirculation ensured long contact times between the phases; however, hindered axial mixing and the presence of dead zones were also identified. Finally, two optimization schemes based on modified design and operating scenarios were evaluated. The adjustment of the airflow distribution between the control zones led to improved mixing and a 20% improvement to the mass transfer coefficient. Upgrading the diffuser grid was found to be an expensive and ineffective solution, leading to worsening of the mixing conditions and yielding the lowest mass transfer coefficient compared with the other optimization schemes studied.