• Bacterial technology-enabled cementitious composites: A review

      Li, L.; Zheng, Q.; Li, Z.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Han, B. (Elsevier, 2019-10-01)
      Cementitious composites are generally brittle and develop considerable tension cracks, resulting in corrosion of steel reinforcement and compromising structural durability. With careful selection and treatment, some kinds of bacteria are able to precipitate calcium carbonate and ‘heal’ cracks in cementitious composites through their metabolism, namely bacterial activity. It is envisioned that the bacterial technology-enabled cementitious composites could have great potential for engineering applications such as surface treatment, crack repair and self-healing construction material. This paper presents the state-of-the-art development of bacterial technology-enabled cementitious composites from the following aspects: mechanisms of bacterial induced calcium carbonate precipitation; methods of applying bacteria into cementitious composites; mechanical properties, durability and their influencing factors; various applications; cost effective analysis and prospect. The paper concludes with an outline of some future opportunities and challenges in the application of bacterial technology-enabled cementitious composites in construction.
    • Bactericidal action of positive and negative ions in air

      Fletcher, L.A.; Gaunt, L.F.; Beggs, Clive B.; Shepherd, Simon J.; Sleigh, P.A.; Noakes, C.J.; Kerr, Kevin G. (2007)
      In recent years there has been renewed interest in the use of air ionisers to control of the spread of airborne infection. One characteristic of air ions which has been widely reported is their apparent biocidal action. However, whilst the body of evidence suggests a biocidal effect in the presence of air ions the physical and biological mechanisms involved remain unclear. In particular, it is not clear which of several possible mechanisms of electrical origin (i.e. the action of the ions, the production of ozone, or the action of the electric field) are responsible for cell death. A study was therefore undertaken to clarify this issue and to determine the physical mechanisms associated with microbial cell death. In the study seven bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium parafortuitum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Bacillus subtilis and Serratia marcescens) were exposed to both positive and negative ions in the presence of air. In order to distinguish between effects arising from: (i) the action of the air ions; (ii) the action of the electric field, and (iii) the action of ozone, two interventions were made. The first intervention involved placing a thin mica sheet between the ionisation source and the bacteria, directly over the agar plates. This intervention, while leaving the electric field unaltered, prevented the air ions from reaching the microbial samples. In addition, the mica plate prevented ozone produced from reaching the bacteria. The second intervention involved placing an earthed wire mesh directly above the agar plates. This prevented both the electric field and the air ions from impacting on the bacteria, while allowing any ozone present to reach the agar plate. With the exception of Mycobacterium parafortuitum, the principal cause of cell death amongst the bacteria studied was exposure to ozone, with electroporation playing a secondary role. However in the case of Mycobacterium parafortuitum, electroporation resulting from exposure to the electric field appears to have been the principal cause of cell inactivation. The results of the study suggest that the bactericidal action attributed to negative air ions by previous researchers may have been overestimated.
    • Balanced dual-segment cylindrical dielectric resonator antennas for ultra-wideband applications.

      Majeed, Asmaa H.; Abdullah, Abdulkareem S.; Sayidmarie, Khalil H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Elmegri, Fauzi; Noras, James M. (2015-10-22)
      In this paper, balanced dual segment cylindrical dielectric antennas (CDRA) with ultra wide-band operation are reported. First a T-shaped slot and L-shaped microstrip feeding line are suggested to furnish a balanced coupling mechanism for feeding two DRAs. Performance of the proposed antenna was analyzed and optimized against the target frequency band. The proposed antenna was then modified by adding a C-shaped strip to increase the gain. The performances of both balanced antennas were characterized and optimized in terms of antenna reflection coefficient, radiation pattern, and gain. The antennas cover the frequency range from 6.4 GHz to 11.736 GHz, which is 58.7% bandwidth. A maximum gain of 2.66 dB was achieved at a frequency of 7 GHz with the first antenna, with a further 2.25 dB increase in maximum gain attained by adding the C-shaped strip. For validation, prototypes of the two antennas were fabricated and tested. The predicted and measured results showed reasonable agreement and the results confirmed good impedance bandwidth characteristics for ultra-wideband operation from both proposed balanced antennas.
    • Bandwidth and gain enhancement of composite right/left-handed metamaterial transmission-line planar antenna employing a non foster impedance matching circuit board

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Althuwayb, A.A.; Azpilicueta, L.; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Huynen, I.; Denidni, T.A.; et al. (2021-04)
      The paper demonstrates an effective technique to significantly enhance the bandwidth and radiation gain of an otherwise narrowband composite right/left-handed transmission-line (CRLH-TL) antenna using a non-Foster impedance matching circuit (NF-IMC) without affecting the antenna's stability. This is achieved by using the negative reactance of the NF-IMC to counteract the input capacitance of the antenna. Series capacitance of the CRLH-TL unit-cell is created by etching a dielectric spiral slot inside a rectangular microstrip patch that is grounded through a spiraled microstrip inductance. The overall size of the antenna, including the NF-IMC at its lowest operating frequency is 0.335λ0 × 0.137λ0 × 0.003λ0, where λ0 is the free-space wavelength at 1.4 GHz. The performance of the antenna was verified through actual measurements. The stable bandwidth of the antenna for |S11|≤ - 18 dB is greater than 1 GHz (1.4-2.45 GHz), which is significantly wider than the CRLH-TL antenna without the proposed impedance matching circuit. In addition, with the proposed technique the measured radiation gain and efficiency of the antenna are increased on average by 3.2 dBi and 31.5% over the operating frequency band.
    • Bandwidth Enhancement of Balanced Folded Loop Antenna Design for Mobile Handsets Using Genetic Algorithms

      Zhou, Dawei; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Excell, Peter S. (2008)
      In this paper, a simple folded loop antenna (FLA) for handsets with relatively wide- band impedance, designed and optimized using genetic algorithms (GA). The FLA dimensions were optimized and evaluated using GA in collaboration with NEC-2 source code. Configuration of optimal FLA with excellent VSWR covering entirely the required GSM1800 frequency bands was found within the maximum generation. A prototype antenna was tested to verify and validate the GA-optimized antenna structure. The measured data have shown good agreement with predicted ones. Moreover, the capabilities of GA are shown as an e±cient optimisation tool for selecting globally optimal parameters to be used in simulations with an electromagnetic antenna design code, seeking convergence to designated specifications.
    • Bandwidth Limitations on Linearly Polarized Microstrip Antennas

      Ghorbani, A.; Ansarizadeh, M.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2010)
      The Bode-Fano integral can be used as an objective tool for assessing the bandwidth of antennas, and especially schemes for bandwidth improvement. Results for U-slot and E-slot dual resonant patch antennas suggest that the Fano integral is invariantly related to the overall volume. The Bode-Fano and Youla theories of broadband matching have been applied to the narrowband and wideband lumped equivalent circuit of microstrip antennas to calculate the maximum achievable return loss-bandwidth product of linearly polarized microstrip antennas. Curves are presented showing the relation between the antenna bandwidth, maximum achievable return loss, and parameters of the equivalent circuit. It has been shown that creating parallel slots on the patch despite all potential advantages, may reduce the potential bandwidth of patch antennas.
    • A basic probability assignment methodology for unsupervised wireless intrusion detection

      Ghafir, Ibrahim; Kyriakopoulos, K.G.; Aparicio-Navarro, F.J.; Lambotharan, S.; Assadhan, B.; Binsalleeh, A.H. (2018-07-11)
      The broadcast nature of wireless local area networks has made them prone to several types of wireless injection attacks, such as Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) at the physical layer, deauthentication, and rogue access point attacks. The implementation of novel intrusion detection systems (IDSs) is fundamental to provide stronger protection against these wireless injection attacks. Since most attacks manifest themselves through different metrics, current IDSs should leverage a cross-layer approach to help toward improving the detection accuracy. The data fusion technique based on the Dempster–Shafer (D-S) theory has been proven to be an efficient technique to implement the cross-layer metric approach. However, the dynamic generation of the basic probability assignment (BPA) values used by D-S is still an open research problem. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised methodology to dynamically generate the BPA values, based on both the Gaussian and exponential probability density functions, the categorical probability mass function, and the local reachability density. Then, D-S is used to fuse the BPA values to classify whether the Wi-Fi frame is normal (i.e., non-malicious) or malicious. The proposed methodology provides 100% true positive rate (TPR) and 4.23% false positive rate (FPR) for the MitM attack and 100% TPR and 2.44% FPR for the deauthentication attack, which confirm the efficiency of the dynamic BPA generation methodology.
    • Beam Steering of Time Modulated Antenna Arrays Using Particle Swarm Optimization

      Abusitta, M.M.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Elfergani, Issa T.; Adebola, A.D.; Excell, Peter S. (22/03/2011)
      In this paper, a simple switching process is employed to steer the beam of a vertically polarised circular antenna array. This is a simple method, in which the difference resulting from the induced currents when the radiating/loaded element is connected/disconnected from the ground plane. A time modulated switching process is applied through particle swarm optimisation.
    • Beam steering technique for binary switched array antenna using genetic algorithm

      Emmanuel, I.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Elkhazmi, Elmahdi A.; Abusitta, M.M.; See, Chan H.; Ghazaany, Tahereh S.; Jones, Steven M.R.; Excell, Peter S. (2013)
      A new approach in achieving beam steering in array antenna is introduced using the genetic algorithm optimization. The binary switching technique uses simple binary ON/OFF diodes placed in the feeding network of the array element to achieve beam steering. Constantly feeding the driven element and continuous binary variation of the ON/OFF state of each parasitic array elements which determines its conducting ability defines a beam steering angle. Each beam steered angle is distinguished by series of binary combination determined by the genetic algorithm. A uniform circular array antenna consisting of 13 elements is used to implement this technique. The simulation and result analysis of the binary switched array is presented with several beam steering angles scanned.
    • Beam-forming module for backhaul link in a Relay-aided 4G network

      Petropoulos, Ioannis; Voudouris, Konstantinos N.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Jones, Steven M.R. (2015-09)
      A novel beam-forming module based on Wilkinson power divider technology, including attenuators and phase shifter chips is designed, fabricated and evaluated to be incorporated in a Relay Station connecting it with the Base Station under a 4G network. The proposed module is a 1:8 port circuit, utilizing two substrates, providing approximately 700 MHz bandwidth over 3.5 GHz frequency band and less than −20 dB transmission line coupling. Moreover an external control unit that feeds the beam-forming module with code-words that define the proper amplitude/phase of the excitation currents is established and described. The presented module is connected to a planar array and tested for two beam-forming scenarios, providing satisfactory radiation patterns.
    • Beam-scanning leaky-wave antenna based on CRLH-metamaterial for millimeter-wave applications

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Khalily, M.; Shukla, P.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-07-03)
      This paper presents empirical results of an innovative beam scanning leaky-wave antenna (LWA) which enables scanning over a wide angle from -35o to +34.5o between 57 GHz and 62 GHz, with broadside radiation centered at 60 GHz. The proposed LWA design is based on composite right/left-handed transmission-line (CRLH-TL) concept. The single layer antenna structure includes a matrix of 3×9 square slots that is printed on top of the dielectric substrate; and printed on the bottom ground-plane are Π and Tshaped slots that enhance the impedance bandwidth and radiation properties of the antenna. The proposed antenna structure exhibits metamaterial property. The slot matrix provides beam scanning as a function of frequency. Physical and electrical size of the antenna is 18.7×6×1.6 mm3 and 3.43􀣅􀫙×1.1􀣅􀫙×0.29􀣅􀫙, respectively; where 􀣅􀫙 is free space wavelength at 55 GHz. The antenna has a measured impedance bandwidth of 10 GHz (55 GHz to 65 GHz) or fractional bandwidth of 16.7%. Its optimum gain and efficiency are 7.8 dBi and 84.2% at 62 GHz.
    • The bedding-in process on disc brakes contact pressure distribution and its effects.

      Loizou, Andreas; Qi, Hong Sheng; Day, Andrew J. (24/11/2010)
      Given that most of the working life of a brake pad life is spent in the bedded condition, it is important to examine the conditions of a fully bedded contact interface. An experimental and a numerical method are combined. Contact pressure and its effects (heat generation/partition and temperature rise) for the drag braking process with and without bedding are compared. The real contact area is also measured and found to be increased for the bedded interface. This results to the contact pressure being ¿more¿ evenly distributed than before. Spreading the contact pressure also results in increasing the total heat transfer between the disc and pad since now more heat can be transferred from the pad (where it is generated) to the disc. It is concluded that in order to have a reliable simulation it is recommended that the bedding-in effects are introduced in the simulations.
    • Behaviour of Axially Loaded Concrete Filled Stainless Steel Elliptical Stub Columns.

      Lam, Dennis; Gardner, L.; Burdett, M. (2010)
      This paper presents the details of an experimental investigation on the behaviour of axially loaded concrete-filled stainless steel elliptical hollow sections. The experimental investigation was conducted using normal and high strength concrete of 30 and 100 MPa. The current study is based on stub column tests and is therefore limited to cross-section capacity. Based on the equations proposed by the authors on concrete-filled stainless steel circular columns, a new set of equations for the stainless steel concrete-filled elliptical hollow sections were proposed. From the limited data currently available, the equation provides an accurate and consistent prediction of the axial capacity of the composite concrete-filled stainless steel elliptical hollow sections.
    • Behaviour of composite steel beams with precast hollow core slabs in hogging moment regions

      Lam, Dennis; Fu, F. (2005)
      The chapter discusses the behavior of composite steel beams with precast hollow core slabs in hogging moment regions. Full-scale composite beams to column semi-rigid connections with precast hollow core slabs are tested in the chapter. The chapter presents a steelwork connection consists of a flush end plate bolted to column flanges. The main variables studied are shear stud's spacing and degree of shear connection. Comprehensive instrumentations are used for all the tests, based on the experimental data, and equations to predict the rotation and the moment capacity for this type of composite connection are proposed in the chapter. A precast composite hollow core floor is a newly developed composite system for building that use precast hollow core slabs as the structural flooring. However, research on composite construction incorporating steel beams with precast hollow core slabs is still relatively new in comparison to the more traditional composite metal deck flooring.
    • Behaviour of Headed Shear Connectors in Composite Beams with Metal Deck Profile

      Qureshi, J.; Lam, Dennis (2009)
      This paper presents a numerical investigation into the behaviour of headed shear stud in composite beams with profiled metal decking. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed using general purpose finite element program ABAQUS to study the behaviour of through-deck welded shear stud in the composite slabs with trapezoidal deck ribs oriented perpendicular to the beam. Both static and dynamic procedures were investigated using Drucker Prager model and Concrete Damaged Plasticity model respectively. In the dynamic procedure using ABAQUS/Explicit, the push test specimens were loaded slowly to eliminate significant inertia effects to obtain a static solution. The capacity of shear connector, load-slip behaviour and failure modes were predicted and validated against experimental results. The delamination of the profiled decking from concrete slab was captured in the numerical analysis which was observed in the experiments. ABAQUS/Explicit was found to be particularly suitable for modelling post-failure behaviour and the contact interaction between profiled decking and concrete slabs. It is concluded that this model represents the true behaviour of the headed shear stud in composite beams with profiled decking in terms of the shear connection capacity, load-slip behaviour and failure modes.
    • Behaviour of Headed Shear Stud in Composite Beams with Profiled Metal Decking

      Qureshi, J.; Lam, Dennis (2009)
      This paper presents a numerical investigation into the behaviour of headed shear stud in composite beams with profiled metal decking. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed using general purpose finite element program ABAQUS to study the behaviour of through-deck welded shear stud in the composite slabs with trapezoidal deck ribs oriented perpendicular to the beam. Both static and dynamic procedures were investigated using Drucker Prager model and Concrete Damaged Plasticity model respectively. In the dynamic procedure using ABAQUS/Explicit, the push test specimens were loaded slowly to eliminate significant inertia effects to obtain a static solution. The capacity of shear connector, load-slip behaviour and failure modes were predicted and validated against experimental results. The delamination of the profiled decking from concrete slab was captured in the numerical analysis which was observed in the experiments. ABAQUS/Explicit was found to be particularly suitable for modelling post-failure behaviour and the contact interaction between profiled decking and concrete slabs. It is concluded that this model represents the true behaviour of the headed shear stud in composite beams with profiled decking in terms of the shear connection capacity, load-slip behaviour and failure modes.
    • Behaviour of Headed Shear Stud in Composite Beams with Profiled Metal Decking

      Qureshi, J.; Lam, Dennis (2012)
      This paper presents a numerical investigation into the behaviour of headed shear stud in composite beams with profiled metal decking. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed using general purpose finite element program ABAQUS to study the behaviour of through-deck welded shear stud in the composite slabs with trapezoidal deck ribs oriented perpendicular to the beam. Both static and dynamic procedures were investigated using Drucker Prager model and Concrete Damaged Plasticity model respectively. In the dynamic procedure using ABAQUS/Explicit, the push test specimens were loaded slowly to eliminate significant inertia effects to obtain a static solution. The capacity of shear connector, load-slip behaviour and failure modes were predicted and validated against experimental results. The delamination of the profiled decking from concrete slab was captured in the numerical analysis which was observed in the experiments. ABAQUS/Explicit was found to be particularly suitable for modelling post-failure behaviour and the contact interaction between profiled decking and concrete slabs. It is concluded that this model represents the true behaviour of the headed shear stud in composite beams with profiled decking in terms of the shear connection capacity, load-slip behaviour and failure modes.
    • Behaviour of Headed Stud Shear Connectors in Composite Beam.

      Lam, Dennis; El-Lobody, E. (2005)
      In composite beam design, headed stud shear connectors are commonly used to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel¿concrete interface. Present knowledge of the load¿slip behavior and the shear capacity of the shear stud in composite beam are limited to data obtained from the experimental push-off tests. For this purpose, an effective numerical model using the finite element method to simulate the push-off test was proposed. The model has been validated against test results and compared with data given in the current Code of Practices, i.e., BS5950, EC4, and AISC. Parametric studies using this model were preformed to investigate variations in concrete strength and shear stud diameter. The finite element model provided a better understanding to the different modes of failure observed during experimental testing and hence shear capacity of headed shear studs in solid concrete slabs