• Dynamic simulation of once-through multistage flash (MSF-OT) desalination process: Effect of seawater temperature on the fouling mechanism in the heat exchangers

      Lokk, Reinar; Alsadaie, S.M.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2021-12)
      Scale formation of carbonates and sulphates is one of the most well-known types of crystallization fouling in heat exchangers. Tackling crystallization fouling in Once-Through Multistage Flash Desalination (MSF-OT) is one of the most challenging tasks in the desalination industry. In this paper, a fouling model is developed and then incorporated into a MSF model to investigate the fouling behaviour under variable seawater temperature. The proposed dynamic model investigates the crystallization of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide at the inside tube surface areas by considering the attachment and removal mechanisms. The results show that the fouling rate is higher at high constant seawater temperature. Overall, the fouling rate is lower at the seasonal variation of the seawater temperature, resulting in a higher performance ratio (PR). The results also show that although the brine heater duty increases in winter due to low seawater temperature, the drop of fouling rate in cold months may save some energy.