• Method and Apparatus for Supporting Ad-Hoc Networking over UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) Protocol.

      Barnawi, A.; Gardiner, John G. (2007)
      A method and apparatus are provided for ad hoc networking over a universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) . In the method, if user equipment (40A) (such as a mobile phone) is not within normal cell coverage (20) , then in an uplink procedure a message which would normally have not be able to be transmitted directly from the User Equipment (40A) to a Base Station (10) is instead forwarded towards the Base Station (10) via one or more intermediate User Equipments (40B) . In the method, the user equipment (40A) is arranged to synchronise itself with the Base Station (10) to acquire timeslot and frame synchronisations and thence perform probing activities to build up a list of neighbouring User Equipments. From this list and power and signal to interference calculations the user equipment (40A) is able to work out the relative positions of its neighbours with respect to the Base Station and itself and come to a routing decision for forwarding its message towards the Base Station.