• Crystallization of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide in the heat exchangers of once-through multistage flash (MSF-OT) desalination process

      Alsadaie, S.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2019-03-04)
      In this paper, a dynamic model of fouling is presented to predict the crystallization of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide inside the condenser tubes of Once-Through Multistage Flash (MSF-OT) desalination process. The model considers the combination of kinetic and mass diffusion rates taking into account the effect of temperature, velocity and salinity of the seawater. The equations for seawater carbonate system are used to calculate the concentration of the seawater species. The effects of salinity and temperature on the solubility of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide are also considered. The results reveal an increase in the fouling inside the tubes caused by crystallization of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 with increase in the stage temperature. The intake seawater temperature and the Top Brine Temperature (TBT) are varied to investigate their impact on the fouling process. The results show that the (TBT) has greater impact than the seawater temperature on increasing the fouling.
    • Dynamic simulation of once-through multistage flash (MSF-OT) desalination process: Effect of seawater temperature on the fouling mechanism in the heat exchangers

      Lokk, Reinar; Alsadaie, S.M.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2021-12)
      Scale formation of carbonates and sulphates is one of the most well-known types of crystallization fouling in heat exchangers. Tackling crystallization fouling in Once-Through Multistage Flash Desalination (MSF-OT) is one of the most challenging tasks in the desalination industry. In this paper, a fouling model is developed and then incorporated into a MSF model to investigate the fouling behaviour under variable seawater temperature. The proposed dynamic model investigates the crystallization of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide at the inside tube surface areas by considering the attachment and removal mechanisms. The results show that the fouling rate is higher at high constant seawater temperature. Overall, the fouling rate is lower at the seasonal variation of the seawater temperature, resulting in a higher performance ratio (PR). The results also show that although the brine heater duty increases in winter due to low seawater temperature, the drop of fouling rate in cold months may save some energy.