• Planning and Operation of Low Voltage Distribution Networks: A Comprehensive Review

      Al-Ja'afreh, Mohammad A.A.; Mokryani, Geev (2019-09-23)
      The low voltage (LV) distribution network is the last stage of the power network, which is connected directly to the end user customers and supplies many dispersed small-scale loads. In order to achieve environmental targets and to address the energy shortage issue, governments worldwide increase the renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity grid. In addition, different types of low carbon technologies (LCTs) such as electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming widely used. A significant portion of RES and LCTs is penetrated into the LV distribution network, which poses a wide range of challenges. In order to address these challenges, there is a persistent need to develop traditional planning and operation frameworks to cope with these new technologies. In this context, this paper provides a comprehensive review about planning, operation, and management of LV distribution networks. The characteristics, types, and topologies of LV distribution networks plus different aspects of operation and planning are investigated. An insightful investigation of the reasons impacts and mitigation of voltage and current unbalanced in LV networks is provided. Moreover, the main three-phase power flow techniques used to analyze the LV networks are analyzed.