• Hydration processes in pastes of Roman and American Natural Cements.

      Vyskocilova, R.; Schwarz, W.; Muncha, D.; Hughes, David C.; Kozlowski, R.; Weber, J. (2007)
      Hydration of five Roman and American natural cements was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and scanning electron microscopy of cement pastes. Two cements were prepared in the laboratory by burning marls from geological sources in Poland (Folwark) and Austria (Lilienfeld). The selection of raw materials and burning conditions were optimized so that the hydraulic nature and appearance of the final burnt materials matched as closely as possible historic Roman cements widely used in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries in Europe to decorate buildings. Three other cements are produced commercially: quick setting Prompt cement from Vicat, France, and Rosendale cements from Edison Coatings Inc., USA. The hydration of the cements studied was shown to comprise two distinct stages. The immediate setting and early strength is due to the formation of calcium aluminum oxide carbonate (or sulfate) hydroxide hydrates. The development of long-term strength is brought about by the formation of calcium silicate hydrates. Similarities and differences between the individual cements are discussed.