• Development of sensing concrete: principles, properties and its applications

      Ding, S.; Dong, S.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Han, B. (AIP publishing, 2019-12)
      Sensing concrete has the capability to sense its condition and environmental changes, including stress (or force), strain (or deformation), crack, damage, temperature and humidity through incorporating functional fillers. Sensing concrete has recently attracted major research interests, aiming to produce smart infrastructures with elegantly integrated health monitoring abilities. In addition to having highly improved mechanical properties, sensing concrete has multifunctional properties, such as improved ductility, durability, resistance to impact, and most importantly self-health monitoring due to its electrical conductivity capability, allowing damage detection without the need of an external grid of sensors. This tutorial will provide an overview of sensing concrete, with attentions to its principles, properties, and applications. It concludes with an outline of some future opportunities and challenges in the application of sensing concrete in construction industry.
    • Environment driven consumer EC model incorporating complexities of consumer body dynamics

      Ali, S.M.; Khan, B.; Mokryani, Geev; Mehmood, C.A.; Jawad, M.; Farid, U. (2019)
      Energy consumption (EC) of consumers primarily depends on comfort level (CL) affirmed by brain sensations of the central nervous system. Environmental parameters such as surroundings, relative humidity, air temperature, solar irradiance, air pressure, and cloud cover directly influence consumer body temperature that in return affect blood dynamics perturbing brain comfort sensations. This CL (either in summer, winter, autumn, or spring season) is a function of external environment and internal body variations that force a consumer toward EC. To develop a new concept of consumer's EC, first the authors described environment parameters in detail with relation to surroundings and EC. Considering this, they tabulated a generic relation of consumer's CL with EC and environment temperature. Second, to build an inter-related bond between the environmental effects on consumer body dynamics, they analysed theoretically and mathematically above mutual relations between medical and environmental sciences. Finally, they present their conceptual EC model based on a closed-loop feedback system. This model is a complex non-linear adaptive system with environmental and surrounding parameters as input to the system resulting in an optimised EC, considering consumer CL as a key parameter for the system.