Browsing Engineering and Informatics by Subject "Buried flexible pipe"
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Buried flexible pipes behaviour in unreinforced and reinforced soils under cyclic loadingBecause of the recent worldwide construction expansion, new roads and buildings may be constructed over already existing buried infrastructures e.g. buried utility pipes, leading to excessive loads threatening their stability and longevity. Limited research studies are available to assess the effect of geogrid reinforcing layers inclusion on mitigating the additional stresses on buried structures due to cyclic loadings. In this research, large-scale fully instrumented laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the behaviour of flexible High-Density Polyethylene pipes (HDPE), in unreinforced and geogrid-reinforced sand, subjected to incrementally increasing cyclic loading, e.g. due to different vehicles capacities or load increase with passing time. Results illustrated that deformation rate in pipe and footing, strain generation rate in pipe and reinforcing layers are rapidly increased in the initial loading cycles, in particular during the first 300 cycles, and then the rate of change decreases significantly, as more cycles are applied. In the unreinforced case, increasing the pipe burial depth significantly reduced the generated deformation and strain in the pipe; however, it has a situational effect on the footing settlement, where it increased after pipe burial depth to its diameter ratio (H/D) of 2.5. In reinforced cases, deformation and strain significantly reduced with the increase in pipe burial depth and number of reinforcing layers. Measurement of strain illustrated that strain generated in the lower reinforcing layer is always higher than that recorded in the upper one, regardless pipe burial depth and value of applied load.
Numerical behaviour of buried flexible pipes in geogrid-reinforced soil under cyclic loadingThree-dimensional finite element models were executed and validated to investigate the performance of buried flexible high-density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipes, in unreinforced and multi-geogrid-reinforced sand beds, while varying pipe burial depth, number of geogrid-layers, and magnitude of applied cyclic loading. Geogrid-layers were simulated considering their geometrical thickness and apertures, where an elasto-plastic constitutive model represented its behaviour. Soil-geogrid load transfer mechanisms due to interlocked soil in-between the apertures of the geogrid-layer were modelled. In unreinforced and reinforced cases, pipe burial depth increase contributed to decreasing deformations of the footing and pipe, and the crown pressure until reaching an optimum value of pipe burial depth. On the contrary, the geogrid-layers strain increased with increasing pipe burial depth. A flexible slab was formed due to the inclusion of two-geogrid-layers, leading to an increase in the strain in the lower geogrid-layer, despite its lower deformation. Inclusion of more than two geogrid-layers formed a heavily reinforced system of higher stiffness, and consequently, strain distribution in the geogrid-layers varied, where the upper layer experienced the maximum strain. In heavily reinforced systems, increasing the amplitude of cyclic loading resulted in a strain redistribution process in the reinforced zone, where the second layer experienced the maximum strain.