• Design of very compact Combline Band-Pass Filter for 5G applications

      Al-Yasir, Yasir I.A.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Noras, James M.; Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M.; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser (2018-11-13)
      In this paper, a compact microstrip band-pass filter (BPF) covering the 3.4 to 3.8 GHz spectrum bandwidth for 5G wireless communications is presented. The planar filter uses three resonators, each terminated by a via to hole ground at one end and a capacitor at the other end with 50 Ω transmission line impedances for input and output terminals. The coupling between the lines is adjusted to resonate at the centre frequency with third-order band-pass Butterworth properties. The proposed combline filter is designed on an alumina substrate with a relative dielectric constant of 9.8 and a very small size of 9×5×1.2 mm3. The proposed filter is simulated and optimized using CST microwave studio software.
    • Eight-Element Antenna Array with Improved Radiation Performances for 5G Hand-Portable Devices

      Ullah, Atta; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Amar, Ahmed S.I.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (MDPI, 2022-09-19)
      This study aims to introduce a new phased array design with improved radiation properties for future cellular networks. The procedure of the array design is simple and has been accomplished on a low-cost substrate material while offering several interesting features with high performance. Its schematic involves eight air-filled slot-loop metal-ring elements with a 1 × 8 linear arrangement at the top edge of the 5G smartphone mainboard. Considering the entire board area, the proposed antenna elements occupy an extremely small area. The antenna elements cover the range of 21–23.5 GHz sub-mm-wave 5G bands. Due to the air-filled function in the configurations of the elements, low-loss and high-performance radiation properties are observed. In addition, the fundamental characteristics of the introduced array are insensitive to various types of substrates. Moreover, its radiation properties have been compared with conventional arrays and better results have been observed. The proposed array appears with a simple design, a low complexity profile, and its attractive broad impedance bandwidth, end-fire radiation mode, wide beam steering, high radiation coverage, and stable characteristics meet the needs of 5G applications in future cellular communications. Additionally, the smartphone array design offers sufficient efficiency when it comes to the appearance and integration of the user’s components. Thus, it could be used in 5G hand-portable devices.
    • Eight-Element Dual-Polarized MIMO Slot Antenna System for 5G Smartphone Applications

      Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Al-Yasir, Yasir I.A.; Ali, Ammar H.; Elfergani, Issa T.; Noras, James M.; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2019-02)
      In this paper, we propose an eight-port/four-resonator slot antenna array with a dual-polarized function for multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) 5G mobile terminals. The design is composed of four dual-polarized square-ring slot radiators fed by pairs of microstrip-line structures. The radiation elements are designed to operate at 3.6 GHz and are located on the corners of the smartphone PCB. The squarering slot radiators provide good dual-polarization characteristic with similar performances in terms of fundamental radiation characteristics. In order to improve the isolation and also reduce the mutual coupling characteristic between the adjunct microstrip-line feeding ports of the dual-polarized radiators, a pair of circular-ring/open-ended parasitic structures is embedded across each square-ring slot radiator. The −10-dB impedance bandwidth of each antenna-element is 3.4–3.8 GHz. However, for −6-dB impedance bandwidth, this value is 600 MHz (3.3–3.9 GHz). The proposed MIMO antenna offers good S-parameters, high-gain radiation patterns, and sufficient total efficiencies, even though it is arranged on a high-loss FR-4 dielectric. The SAR function and the radiation characteristics of the proposed design in the vicinity of user-hand/userhead are studied. A prototype of the proposed smartphone antenna is fabricated, and good measurements are provided. The antenna provides good features with a potential application for use in the 5G mobile terminals.
    • Energy Efficient RF for UDNs

      Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M.; Sajedin, M.; Al-Yasir, Yasir I.A.; Mejillones, S.C.; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Rayit, A.; Elfergani, Issa T.; Rodriguez, J.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Oldoni, M.; et al. (2021-11)
      Multi-standard RF front-end is a critical part of legacy and future emerging mobile architectures, where the size, the efficiency, and the integration of the elements in the RF front-end will affect the network key performance indicators (KPIs). This chapter discusses power amplifier design for both handset and base station applications for 5G and beyond. Also, this chapter deals with filter-antenna design for 5G applications that include a synthesis-based approach, differentially driven reconfigurable planar filter-antenna, and an insensitive phased array antenna with air-filled slot-loop resonators.
    • Green and Highly Efficient MIMO Transceiver System for 5G Heterogenous Networks

      Al-Yasir, Yasir I.A.; Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M.; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Elfergani, Issa T.; Rodriguez, J.; Noras, James M.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Rayit, A.; Qahwaji, Rami S.R. (IEEE, 2021-07-27)
      The paper presents the general requirements and an exemplary design of the RF front-end system that in today´s handset is a key consumer of power. The design is required to minimize the carbon footprint in mobile handsets devices, whilst facilitating cooperation, and providing the energy-efficient operation of multi-standards for 5G communications. It provides the basis of hardware solutions for RF front-end integration challenges and offers design features covering energy efficiency for power amplifiers (PAs), Internet of Things (IoT) controlled tunable filters and compact highly isolated multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) antennas. An optimum design requires synergetic collaboration between academic institutions and industry in order to satisfy the key requirements of sub-6 GHz energy-efficient 5G transceivers, incorporating energy efficiency, good linearity and the potential for low-cost manufacturing. A highly integrated RF transceiver was designed and implemented to transmit and receive a picture using compact MIMO antennas integrated with efficient tunable filters and high linearity PAs. The proposed system has achieved a bit error rate (BER) of less than 10-10 at a data rate of 600 Mb/s with a wireless communication distance of more than 1 meter and power dissipation of 18-20 mW using hybrid beamforming technology and 64-QAM modulation.
    • Intelligent and energy efficient mobile smartphone gateway for healthcare smart devices based on 5G

      Sigwele, Tshiamo; Hu, Yim Fun; Ali, Muhammad; Hou, Jiachen; Susanto, Misfa; Fitriawan, H. (2018-12)
      The healthcare sector is now blending with Information and Communications Technology (ICT) using Internet of Things (IoT) to potentially minimise medical errors and reduce healthcare cost. Patients are now embedded with smart devices like body sensors and wearable devices which can monitor their health without the need for a doctor in physical contact. Such smart devices have the downside of low battery power and are unable to transmit their data to the medical personnel when the patient is on the move away from the smart home/smart clinic fixed gateway. A mobile gateway is required which moves with the patient to process the smart device data without depleting the smartphone battery. This paper proposes an Intelligent and Energy Efficient SG based smartphone Gateway for healthcare smart devices (IEE5GG). In IEE5GG, the 5G architecture is adopted and the patient's smartphone is used as a gateway where multiple smart devices are connected e.g. via Bluetooth. To save energy, requests to the smartphone can either be executed on the smartphone gateway or offloaded and executed in the Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) cloud at close proximity to the smartphone in the 5G Base Station (BS) central Unit (gNB-CU) while considering the transmission power, Quality of Service (QoS), smartphone battery level and Central Processing Unit (CPU) load. Results show that the proposed IEE5GG framework saves up to 38% of energy in the healthcare mobile gateway smartphone and reduces healthcare application service time by up to 41%.
    • MIMO Antenna System for Modern 5G Handheld Devices with Healthcare and High Rate Delivery

      Kiani, S.H.; Altaf, A.; Anjum, M.R.; Afridi, S.; Arain, Z.A.; Anwar, S.; Khan, S.; Alibakhshikenari, M.; Lalbakhsh, A.; Khan, M.A.; et al. (MDPI, 2021-11-08)
      In this work, a new prototype of the eight-element MIMO antenna system for 5G communications, internet of things, and networks has been proposed. This system is based on an H-shaped monopole antenna system that offers 200 MHz bandwidth ranges between 3.4-3.6GHz, and the isolation between any two elements is well below -12dB without using any decoupling structure. The proposed system is designed on a commercially available 0.8mm-thick FR4 substrate. One side of the chassis is used to place the radiating elements, while the copper from the other side is being removed to avoid short-circuiting with other components and devices. This also enables space for other systems, sub-systems, and components. A prototype is fabricated and excellent agreement is observed between the experimental and the computed results. It was found that ECC is 0.2 for any two radiating elements which is consistent with the desirable standards, and channel capacity is 38 bps/Hz which is 2.9 times higher than 4x4 MIMO configuration. In addition, single hand mode and dual hand mode analysis are conducted to understand the operation of the system under such operations and to identify losses and/or changes in the key performance parameters. Based on the results, the proposed antenna system will find its applications in modern 5G handheld devices and internet of things with healthcare and high rate delivery. Besides that, its design simplicity will make it applicable for mass production to be used in industrial demands.
    • A New Beamforming Approach Using 60 GHz Antenna Arrays for Multi–Beams 5G Applications

      Al-Sadoon, M.A.G.; Patwary, M.N.; Zahedi, Y.; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Aldelemy, Ahmad; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (MDPI, 2022-05-30)
      Recent studies and research have centred on new solutions in different elements and stages to the increasing energy and data rate demands for the fifth generation and beyond (B5G). Based on a new-efficient digital beamforming approach for 5G wireless communication networks, this work offers a compact-size circular patch antenna operating at 60 GHz and covering a 4 GHz spectrum bandwidth. Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (M–MIMO) and beamforming technology build and simulate an active multiple beams antenna system. Thirty-two linear and sixty-four planar antenna array configurations are modelled and constructed to work as base stations for 5G mobile communication networks. Furthermore, a new beamforming approach called Projection Noise Correlation Matrix (PNCM) is presented to compute and optimise the fed weights of the array elements. The key idea of the PNCM method is to sample a portion of the measured noise correlation matrix uniformly in order to provide the best representation of the entire measured matrix. The sampled data will then be utilised to build a projected matrix using the pseudoinverse approach in order to determine the best fit solution for a system and prevent any potential singularities caused by the matrix inversion process. The PNCM is a low-complexity method since it avoids eigenvalue decomposition and computing the entire matrix inversion procedure and does not require including signal and interference correlation matrices in the weight optimisation process. The suggested approach is compared to three standard beamforming methods based on an intensive Monte Carlo simulation to demonstrate its advantage. The experiment results reveal that the proposed method delivers the best Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) augmentation among the compared beamformers
    • A New Polarization-Reconfigurable Antenna for 5G Wireless Communications

      Al-Yasir, Yasir I.A.; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Elfergani, Issa T.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Noras, James M.; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Al-jzari, A.; Hammed, W.I. (2018-09-20)
      This paper presents a circular polarization reconfigurable antenna for 5G applications, which is compact in size and has good axial ratio and frequency response. The proposed microstrip antenna is designed on a FR-4 substrate with a relative dielectric constant of 4.3 and has a maximum size of 30×30 mm2 with 50 Ω coaxial probe feeding. This design has two PIN diode switches controlling reconfiguration between right hand circular polarization (RHCP) and left hand circular polarization (LHCP). To achieve reconfigurability, a C-slot rectangular patch antenna with truncated corner techniques is employed by cutting off two corners on the radiating patch. The proposed antenna has been simulated using CST microwave studio software: it has 3.35-3.77 GHz and 3.4-3.72 GHz bands for both states of reconfiguration, and each is suitable for 5G applications with a good axial ratio of less than 1.8 dB and good gain of 4.8 dB for both modes of operation.
    • The Optimum Location for Access Point Deployment based on RSS for Indoor Communication

      Shareef, O.A.; Abdulwahid, M.M.; Mosleh, M.F.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2019-03)
      In indoor wireless communication networks, the optimal locations had been known to deploy the access points (AP's) which has a significant impact on improving various aspects of network operation, management, and coverage. In addition, develop the behavioral characteristics of the wireless network. The most used approach for localization purposes was based on Received Signal Strength (RSS) measurements, which is widely used in the wireless network. As well as, it can be easily accessed from different operating systems. In this paper, we proposed an optimal AP localization algorithm based on RSS measurement obtained from different received points. This localization algorithm works as a complementary to the 3D Ray tracing model based REMCOM wireless InSite software and considered two-step localization approach, data collection phase, and localization phase. Obtained result give relatively high accuracy to select the optimum location for AP compare with other selected locations. It is worth to mention that effect of different building materials on signal propagation has been considered with specifying the optimum location of deployment. Furthermore, channel characterizations that based on path losses have been considered as a confirmation for the optimum location being selected.
    • A planar dual-polarized phased array with broad bandwidth and quasi end-fire radiation for 5G mobile handsets

      Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Zhang, J.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Pedersen, G.F.; Zhang, S. (IEEE, 2021)
      A planar dual-polarized phased array is proposed for 5G cellular communications. The array has the properties of dual-polarization, wideband and quasi end-fire radiation, which is printed on one side of a single-layer substrate. The design contains two 8-element sub-arrays including horizontally polarized end-fire dipole antennas and vertically polarized end-fire periodic slot antennas, employed on the PCB ground plane of the 5G mobile platform. Both sub-arrays provide wide bandwidth to cover 28 and 38 GHz (promising 5G candidate bands). The -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed CPW-fed dipole and slot antennas are 26.5-39.5 GHz and 27.1-45.5 GHz, respectively. Moreover, for -6 dB impedance bandwidth, these values could be more than 20 GHz (24.4-46.4 GHz for the dipole antenna) and 70 GHz (22.3-95 GHz for the slot antenna). The fundamental characteristics of the proposed dual-polarized 5G antenna array in terms of the impedance bandwidth, realized gain, polarization, radiation pattern, and beam steering are investigated and good results are obtained. The clearance of the proposed dual-polarized 5G antenna array is less than 4.5 mm which is sufficient for cellular applications.
    • Recent advances in antenna design for 5G heterogeneous networks

      Elfergani, Issa T.; Hussaini, A.S.; Rodriguez, J.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2022-01)
    • Recent developments of reconfigurable antennas for 4G and 5G wireless communications: A survey

      Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Basherlou, H.J.; Al-Yasir, Yasir I.A.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M.; Noras, James M. (Avid Science, 2019-12)
      Reconfigurable antennas play important roles in smart and adaptive systems and are the subject of many research studies. They offer several advantages such as multifunctional capabilities, minimized volume requirements, low front-end processing efforts with no need for a filtering element, good isolation, and sufficient out-ofband rejection; these make them well suited for use in wireless applications such as fourth generation (4G) and fifth generation (5G) mobile terminals. With the use of active materials such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), varactor or p-i-n (PIN) diodes, an antenna’s characteristics can be changed through altering the current flow on the antenna structure. If an antenna is to be reconfigurable into many different states, it needs to have an adequate number of active elements. However, a large number of high-quality active elements increases cost, and necessitates complex biasing networks and control circuitry. We review some recently proposed reconfigurable antenna designs suitable for use in wireless communications such as cognitiveratio (CR), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), ultra-wideband (UWB), and 4G/5G mobile terminals. Several examples of antennas with different reconfigurability functions are analyzed and their performances are compared. Characteristics and fundamental properties of reconfigurable antennas with single and multiple reconfigurability modes are investigated.
    • Recent Progress in the Design of 4G/5G Reconfigurable Filters

      Al-Yasir, Yasir I.A.; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M.; Noras, James M. (2019-01-20)
      Currently, several microwave filter designs contend for use in wireless communications. Among various microstrip filter designs, the reconfigurable planar filter presents more advantages and better prospects for communication applications, being compact in size, light-weight and cost-effective. Tuneable microwave filters can reduce the number of switches between electronic components. This paper presents a review of recent reconfigurable microwave filter designs, specifically on current advances in tuneable filters that involve high-quality factor resonator filters to control frequency, bandwidth and selectivity. The most important materials required for this field are also highlighted and surveyed. In addition, the main references for several types of tuneable microstrip filters are reported, especially related to new design technologies. Topics surveyed include microwave and millimetre wave designs for 4G and 5G applications, which use varactors and MEMSs technologies.
    • Transparent 2-Element 5G MIMO Antenna for Sub-6 GHz Applications

      Desai, A.; Palandoken, M.; Elfergani, Issa T.; Akdag, I.; Zebiri, C.; Bastos, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2022-01)
      A dual-port transparent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna resonating at sub-6 GHz 5G band is proposed by using patch/ground material as transparent conductive oxide (AgHT-8) and a transparent Plexiglas substrate. Two identical circular-shaped radiating elements fed by using a microstrip feedline are designed using the finite element method (FEM) based highfrequency structure simulator (HFSS) software. The effect of the isolation mechanism is discussed using two cases. In case 1, the two horizontally positioned elements are oriented in a similar direction with a separate ground plane, whereas in case 2, the elements are vertically placed facing opposite to each other with an allied ground. In both cases, the transparent antennas span over a −10 dB band of 4.65 to 4.97 GHz (300 MHz) with isolation greater than 15 dB among two elements. The diversity parameters are also analyzed for both the cases covering the correlation coefficient (ECC), mean effective gain (MEG), diversity gain (DG), and channel capacity loss (CCL). The average gain and efficiency above 1 dBi and 45%, respectively with satisfactory MIMO diversity performance, makes the transparent MIMO antenna an appropriate choice for smart IoT devices working in the sub-6 GHz 5G band by mitigating the co-site location and visual clutter issues.
    • Ultra-Compact mm-Wave Monolithic IC Doherty Power Amplifier for Mobile Handsets

      Sajedin, M.; Elfergani, Issa T.; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Fernandez-Barciela, M.; Violas, M. (MDPI, 2021-09)
      This work develops a novel dynamic load modulation Power Amplifier (PA) circuity that can provide an optimum compromise between linearity and efficiency while covering multiple cellular frequency bands. Exploiting monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) technology, a fully integrated 1W Doherty PA architecture is proposed based on 0.1 µm AlGaAs/InGaAs Depletion- Mode (D-Mode) technology provided by the WIN Semiconductors foundry. The proposed wideband DPA incorporates the harmonic tuning Class-J mode of operation, which aims to engineer the voltage waveform via second harmonic capacitive load termination. Moreover, the applied post-matching technique not only reduces the impedance transformation ratio of the conventional DPA, but also restores its proper load modulation. The simulation results indicate that the monolithic drive load modulation PA at 4 V operation voltage delivers 44% PAE at the maximum output power of 30 dBm at the 1 dB compression point, and 34% power-added efficiency (PAE) at 6 dB power back-off (PBO). A power gain flatness of around 14 ± 0.5 dB was achieved over the frequency band of 23 GHz to 27 GHz. The compact MMIC load modulation technique developed for the 5G mobile handset occupies the die area of 3.2.