• Analytical modeling for spectrum handoff decision in cognitive radio networks

      Zahed, Salah M.B.; Awan, Irfan U.; Cullen, Andrea J. (2013-11)
      Cognitive Radio (CR) is an emerging technology used to significantly improve the efficiency of spectrum utilization. Although some spectrum bands in the primary user's licensed spectrum are intensively used, most of the spectrum bands remain underutilized. The introduction of open spectrum and dynamic spectrum access lets the secondary (unlicensed) users, supported by cognitive radios; opportunistically utilize the unused spectrum bands. However, if a primary user returns to a band occupied by a secondary user, the occupied spectrum band is vacated immediately by handing off the secondary user's call to another idle spectrum band. Multiple spectrum handoffs can severely degrade quality of service (QoS) for the interrupted users. To avoid multiple handoffs, when a licensed primary user appears at the engaged licensed band utilized by a secondary user, an effective spectrum handoff procedure should be initiated to maintain a required level of QoS for secondary users. In other words, it enables the channel clearing while searching for target vacant channel(s) for completing unfinished transmission. This paper proposes prioritized proactive spectrum handoff decision schemes to reduce the handoff delay and the total service time. The proposed schemes have been modeled using a preemptive resume priority (PRP) M/G/1 queue to give a high priority to interrupted users to resume their transmission ahead of any other uninterrupted secondary user. The performance of proposed handoff schemes has been evaluated and compared against the existing spectrum handoff schemes. Experimental results show that the schemes developed here outperform the existing schemes in terms of average handoff delay and total service time under various traffic arrival rates as well as service rates.